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The Thirtieth Flash




The Thirtieth Flash of the Thirty-First Letter and a fruit of Eskisehir Prison, this consists of Six Points


[Just as Meyve Risalesi (The Fruits of Belief) was the supreme lesson of the Denizli `School of Joseph', and El-Huccetü'z-Zehra (The Shining Proof) was a most valuable lesson of the Afyon `School of Joseph', so too a powerful lesson of the greatest importance of the Eskisehir `School of Joseph' is this Thirtieth Flash, which expounds six Points about the Six Divine Names bearing the Greatest Name.


Everyone will not immediately understand and appreciate the profound and extensive matters in the pieces about the Names of Ever-Living and Self-Subsistent from the Greatest Name, but they also will not remain without a share of them.]






The Divine Name of Most Holy




[This Point concerns one aspect of the Divine Name of Most Holy. It is appropriate that it should form an addendum to the Addendum of the Thirtieth Word.]




In the Name of God, the Merciful, the Compassionate. And the earth We have spread wide; and how well have We ordered it.


One manifestation of the Divine Name of Most Holy, which is one meaning of the above verse, and is a Greatest Name or one of the six lights contained in the Greatest Name, became clear to me in the month of Sha'ban in Eskisehir Prison. It demonstrated with complete clarity both the Divine existence and Divine Unity. I saw it as follows:


The universe is a vast, constantly working factory and the globe of the earth a hostel and guest-house which is continually filled and emptied. Generally, factories, hostels and guest-houses which are thus used , become much dirtied and soiled with filth, debris and rubbish, and putrid matter accumulates in all parts of them. Unless they are kept with care and cleaned and swept, they cannot be occupied; human beings are overwhelmed by the dirt. The factory of the universe and guest-house of the earth, however, are totally pure, clean and spotless, and completely unsoiled, untainted and fresh; there is nothing unnecessary, nothing without benefit, not a random piece of dirt to be found. Even if there is apparently, it is quickly thrown into a transformation machine and cleaned.


This means that the One Who looks after this factory does so very well. And its Owner is such that He sweeps and cleans and orders the vast factory and extensive palace as though they were small rooms. In relation to the size of the huge factory, there is no dirt or rubbish remaining from its filth and debris. Indeed, considering its size, its cleanness and tidiness are remarkable.


If someone does not wash himself and clean his small room for a month, they will become extremely dirty and soiled. That is to say, the cleanliness, purity, and luminosity in this palace of the world arise from a continuous, wise, and diligent cleaning. If it was not for this cleaning, sweeping and careful tending, in one year all the hundred thousand animal species would have been choked on the face of the earth.


Also, the debris of the globes in space and the heavens, which manifest life and death, and of satellites and stars, would have smashed not only our heads and those of the other animals, but also the head of the earth itself and of our world. They would have rained down on our heads rocks the size of mountains and driven us away from our homeland in this world. However, for a long time past, if as a warning a few meteorites have fallen as a result of destruction and reconstruction in those lofty worlds, they have not broken any heads.


Furthermore, the corpses of a hundred thousand animal species and the debris of two hundred thousand plant species each year on the face of the earth resulting from the alternation and struggles of life and death would have so utterly filthied the land and the sea that conscious creatures, rather than loving and delighting in the face of the earth, would have felt disgust and aversion at such ugliness and fled to death and non-existence.


Just as a bird cleans its wings with ease and a scribe his pages, so also are the wings of the aircraft of the earth and the birds of the heavenly bodies and the pages of the book of the universe cleaned and made beautiful. And so much so that those who do not consider the infinite beauty of the Hereafter and think with belief become lovers of this cleanliness and beauty of the world, they worship it.


That is to say, this palace of the world and factory of the universe display a greatest manifestation of the Divine Name of Most Holy whereby it is not only the carniverous cleaners of the seas and the eagles of the land which obey the commands proceeding from that sacred cleansing, but also its cleansing officials which gather up corpses, like worms and ants. Like the red and white blood-corpuscles flowing in the body obey those sacred commands and do the cleaning in the body's cells, so does breathing purify and clean the blood.


And as eyelids obey the command to clean the eye and flies to brush their wings, so the extensive atmosphere and the clouds obey it. The air blows upon the pieces of dust and soil seftled on the surface and face of the earth and cleans it. The sponges of the clouds sprinkle water on the garden of the earth and becalm the dust and soil. Then, in order not to dirty the sky, the air quickly collects the earth's rubbish and withdraws and hides itself with perfect orderliness. It displays the beautiful face and eye of the skies as swept and polished, all sparkling and shining.


And as the stars, elements, minerals, and plants obey the command to clean, all particles and atoms also obey it: they pay attention to cleanliness within the astonishing upheavals of change and transformation. They never congregate anywhere unnecessarily and get in the way. And if they do become soiled, they are quickly cleaned. They are impelled by a hand of wisdom to acquire the cleanest, neatest, and most shining states and the most beautiful, pure and subtle forms.


Thus, this single act, that is, making clean, which is a single truth, is a greatest manifestation of a Greatest Name, the Name of Most Holy, which shows itself in the rnaximum sphere, that is, throughout the universe. Like the sun, it shows directly to eyes that are far-seeing and broad-sighted the Divine existence and Unity together with the Most Beautiful Divine Names.




It has been established with decisive proofs in many parts of the Risale-i Nur that since the act of ordering and order, which are a manifestation of the Names of Sapient and All-Wise; and the act of weighing and balance, which are a manifestation of the Names of Justice and All-Just; and the act of adorning and munificence, which are a manifestation of the Names of Beauteous and All-Generous; and the act of sustaining and bestowal, which are a manifestation of the Names of Sustainer and Most Compassionate are each a single truth and a single act, they demonstrate the necessary existence and Unity of a Single Being. In exactly the same way, the act of purifying and making clean, which is a manifestation and display of the Name of Most Holy, demonstrates like the sun both the existence of the Necessarily Existent One, and like daylight, His Unity.


And as the wise acts of ordering, balancing, adorning and making clean mentioned above point to a Single Maker by reason of their unity of kind in the maximum sphere, so do most of the Beautiful Names, indeed, the thousand and one Names, each have such a greatest manifestation in the maximum sphere. And the act proceeding from that manifestation points to the Single Unique One with clarity and decisiveness in relation to its extensiveness.


The self-evident truths and single acts which illuminate the face of the universe and make it smile like the universal wisdom which causes al1 things to conform to its .law and order, the comprehensive munificence which adorns all things and causes them to smile, the all-embracing mercy that makes all things pleased and happy, the universal providing of sustenance which nurtures and gives pleasure to all things, and the life and giving of life which connects each thing with all things and makes each thing benefit from, and to some extent own, all things-these selfevident truths and single acts point to a single All-Wise, All-Generous, and All-Compassionate One, a single Sustainer, a single Ever-Living Giver of Life as plainly as light points to the sun.


If those hundreds of extensive acts, each one of which is a clear proof of God's Unity, are not attributed to the Single Unique One, each necessarily becomes impossible in hundreds of respects. For example, let alone the self-evident truths and single evidences, like wisdom, providence, mercy, sustaining and giving of life, if only the act of making clean is not attributed to the Creator of the universe, then the following becomes necessary in the unbelieving way of the people of misguidance:


Either all the creatures connected to cleansing from particles and flies to the elements and the stars would have to have the ability to know and consider the adorning, balancing, and cleansing of the vast universe and would act accordingly, or each would have to possess the sacred attributes of the Creator of the world, or each would have to be present at a consultative meeting the size of the universe in order to regulate the equilibrium of the adorning and cleansing of the universe and its incomings and outgoings, and innumerable particles, flies, and stars would have to be the members of the meeting; and so on. Hundreds of superstitious, nonsensical and sophistical impossibilities like these would have to occur so that the universal, comprehensive, and exalted adorning, purifying and cleasing that is to be seen and observed everywhere could exist. As for this, it is not impossible once, but one hundred thousand times over.


If daylight and the imaginary miniature suns represented in all shining objects on the earth are not attributed to the sun and they are not said to be the manifestation of the sun's reflection, it is necessary for the actual sun to be present in all fragments of glass, drops of water and snowflakes glistening on the face of the earth, and even in all particles of air, so that the universal light could exist.


Thus, wisdom also is a light; all-embracing mercy is a light; adorning, balancing, ordering, and cleansing are each an encompassing light: they are all the rays of the Pre-Eternal Sun. So, see how misguidance and unbelief have entered a bog from which there is no way out! See just how idiotic is the ignorance of misguidance! Say: "Praise be to God for the religion of Islam and complete and perfect belief!"


For sure, this exalted, universal cleansing which keeps the palace of the universe clean is the manifestation and requirement of the Divine Name of Most Holy. And just as the glorification of all creatures looks to the Name of Most Holy, so also does the Name of Most Holy require the cleanliness of all of them.


It is because of this sacred connection of cleanliness that the Hadith,


"Cleanliness is a part of belief" deems it to be a light of belief. And the verse,




Indeed, God loves those who turn to Him constantly and He loves those who keep themselves pure and clean


shows that cleanliness is a means of attracting God's love.




* * *




The Divine Name of All-Just




And there is not a thing but its (sources and] treasures (inexhaustible) are with Us; but We only send down thereof in due and ascertainable measures.


One point concerning this verse and one manifestation of the Name of All-Just, which is a Greatest Name or one of the six lights comprising the Greatest Name, like the First Point, appeared to me from afar while in Eskisehir Prison. In order to bring it closer to the understanding, again by means of a comparison, we say the following:


The universe is a palace, but it is such a palace that in it is a city which is being constantly shaken by destruction and reconstruction. And in the city is a country which is being continuously agitated by war and emigration. And within the country is a world which is unceasingly revolving amid death and life. But such an astonishing balance, equilibrium and equilibration prevail in the palace, city, country and world that it self-evidently proves that the transformations, incomings and outgoings apparent in these innumerable beings are being measured and weighed every moment on the scales of a Single Being Who sees and supervises the whole universe.


For if it had been otherwise, if causes had been free and unrestrained, which try to destroy the balance and overrun everything, through a single fish laying a thousand eggs and a single flower like a poppy producing twenty thousand seeds, and through the onslaught and violence of change and the elements flowing in floods, or if it had been referred to aimless, purposeless chance, anarchic blind forces, and unconscious dark Nature, the equilibrium of beings and balance of the universe would have been so utterly destroyed that within a year, indeed within a day, there would have been chaos. That is to say, the seas would have been filled with things in total disorder and confusion and would have become fetid; the atmosphere would have been poisoned with noxious gases; and as for the earth, it would have turned into a refuse-heap, slaughter-house, and swamp. The world would have suffocated.


Thus, everything from the cells of an animate body, the red and white corpuscles in the blood, the transformations of minute particles, and the mutual proportion and relation of the body's organs, to the incomings and outgoings of the seas, the income and expenditure of springs under the earth, the birth and death of animals and plants, the destruction of autumn and the reconstruction of spring, the duties and motion of the elements and the stars, and the alternations, struggles and clashes of death and life, light and darkness, and heat and cold, are ordered and weighed with so sensitive a balance, so fine a measure, that the human mind can nowhere see any waste or futility, just as human science and philosophy see everywhere and point out the most perfect order and beautiful symmetry. Indeed, human science and philosophy are a manifestation and interpreter of that order and symmetry.


So, come and consider the balance and equilibrium of the sun and its twelve planets. Does this balance not point as clearly as the sun to the All-Glorious One Who is All-Just and All-Powerful? And especially our ship, that is, the globe of the earth, which is one of the planets; it travels an orbit of twenty-four thousand years in one year, not scattering or shaking the things stored up and stacked on its face, despite its extraordinary speed, nor throwing them off into space. If its speed had been increased or reduced just a little, it would have thrown its inhabitants off into the atmosphere, and scattered them through space. And if its balance was to be destroyed for a minute, or even a second, it would destroy the world. Indeed, it would clash with another body and doomsday would break forth.


And especially the compassionate balance on the face of the earth of the births, deaths, livelihoods, and lives of the four hundred thousand plant and animal species, it shows a single Just and Compassionate One, as clearly as light shows the sun.


And especially the members, faculties, and senses of a single of the innumerable members of those species, they are related to each other with so fine a balance and equilibrium that their balance and mutual proportion show an All-Wise and Just Maker so clearly as to be self-evident.


And especially the cells and blood-vessels in the bodies of animals, and the corpuscles in the blood and particles in the corpuscles, they have such a fine, sensitive, and wondrous balance that it self-evidently proves that they are being nurtured and administered through the balance, law, and order of a single All-Just and Wise Creator in Whose hands are the reins of all things, has the key to all things, for Whom nothing is an obstacle to anything else, and directs all things as easily as a single thing.


If someone who does not believe or deems it unlikely that the deeds of jinn and men will be weighed up on the supreme scales of justice at the Last Judgement notes carefully this vast balance which he can see in this world with his own eyes, he will surely no longer consider it unlikely.


O wasteful, prodigal.. wrongful, unjust.. dirty, unclean.. wretched man! You have not acted in accordance with the economy, cleanliness, and justice which is the principle by which the whole universe and all beings act, and are therefore in effect the object of their anger and disgust. On what do you rely that through your wrongdoing and disequilibrium, your wastefulness and uncleanliness, you make all beings angry? Yes, the universal wisdom of the universe, which is the greatest manifestation of the Divine Name of All-Wise, turns on economy and lack of waste. It commands frugality.


While the total justice in the universe proceeding from the greatest manifestation of the Name of All-Just, administers the balance of all things. And it enjoins justice on man. Mentioning the word `balance' four times, these verses in Sura al-Rahman,


And the firmament has He raised high, and He has set up the balance (of justice); * In order that you may not transgress (due) balance. So establish weight with justice and fall not short in the balance,


indicate four degrees and four sorts of balance, showing its immensity and supreme importance in the universe. Yes, just as there is no wastefulness in anything, so too in nothing is there true injustice and imbalance.


And the cleanliness and purification proceeding from the Name of Most Holy cleans and makes beautiful all the beings in the universe. So long as man's dirty hand does not interfere, there is no true uncleanliness or ugliness in anything.


So, you may understand how basic to human life are the principles of justice, frugality, and cleanliness, which are truths of the Qur'an and Islamic principles. And know how closely connected with the universe are the injunctions of the Qur'an, having spread their firm roots everywhere, and that it is impossible to destroy those truths like it is impossible to destroy the universe and change its form.


Is it at all possible that although hundreds of comprehensive truths like these three vast lights, such as mercy, grace, and preservation, require and necessitate the resurrection of the dead and the Hereafter, powerful and all-encompassing truths like mercy, favour, justice, wisdom, frugality, and cleanliness, which govern in the universe and all beings, should be transformed into unkindness, tyranny, lack of wisdom, wastefulness, uncleanliness, and futility, through there being no Hereafter and the resurrection not occurring?


God forbid, a hundred thousand times, God forbid! Would a mercy and wisdom which compassionately preserve the rights of life of a fly violate the countless rights of life of all conscious beings and the numberless rights of numberless beings, through not bringing about the resurrection? And if one may say so, would a splendid dominicality which displays infinite sensitivity and care in its mercy and compassion and justice and wisdom, and a Divine sovereignty which adorns the universe with His endless wondrous arts and bounties in order to display His perfections and make himself known and loved, permit there to be no resurrection, which would reduce to nothing the value of creatures and all their perfections, and make them denied? God forbid! An absolute beauty such as that clearly would not permit such absolute ugliness.


Yes, one who wants to deny the Hereafter must first deny all the world and all its truths. Otherwise the world together with all its truths will give him the lie with a hundred thousand tongues, proving the compounded nature of his lie. The Tenth Word proves with certain evidences that the existence of the Hereafter is as definite and indubitable as the existence of this world.


* * *






which alludes to the Third of the Six Lights of the Greatest Name,


The Divine Name of Sapient




Invite (all) to the way of your Sustainer with wisdom.




[One manifestation of the Divine Name of Sapient, which is a Greatest Name or one of the six lights of the Greatest Name, and a fine point of the above verse, appeared to me in the month of Ramadan while in Eskisehir Prison. This Third Point consists of Five Matters, and forms only an allusion to it, and being written in haste, has remained in the state of the first draft.]






As is indicated in the Tenth Word, the greatest manifestation of the Divine Name of Sapient has made the universe like a book in every page of which hundreds of books have been written, and in every line of which hundreds of pages have been included, and in every word of which are hundreds of lines, and in each letter of which are a hundred words, and in every point of which is found a short index of the book. The book's pages and lines down to the very points show its Inscriber and Writer with such clarity that that book of the universe testifies to and proves the existence and Unity of its Scribe to a degree far greater than it shows its own existence. For if a single letter shows its own existence to the extent of a letter, it shows its Scribe to the extent of a line.


Yes, one page of this mighty book is the face of the earth. Books to the number of the plant and animal species are to be observed on this page in the spring, one within the other, together, at the same time, without error, in most perfect form.


A single line of the page is a garden. We see that written on this line i are well-composed odes to the number of flowers, trees, and animals, together, one within the other, without error.


One word of the line is a tree which has opened its blossom and put forth its leaves in order to produce its fruit. This word consists of meaningful passages lauding and praising the All-Glorious Sapient One to the number of orderly, well-proportioned, adorned leaves, flowers, and fruits. It is as though like all trees, this tree is a well-composed ode singing the praises of its Inscriber.


It is also as if the All-Glorious Sapient One wants to look with thousands of eyes on His wonderful antique works displayed in the exhibition of the earth.


And it is as if the bejewelled gifts, decorations and uniforms given to the tree by that Pre-Eternal Monarch have been given such adorned, well proportioned, orderly, meaningful and wise forms in order to present them to His view in the spring, its particular festival and parade, that each of its flowers and fruits testifies in numerous ways and with many evidences one within the other to its Inscriber's existence and Names.


For example, in all its blossoms and fruits is a balance. The balance is within an order, and the order is within an ordering and balancing which is being constantly renewed. The ordering and balancing is within an art and adornment, and the adornment and art are within meaningful scents and wise tastes. Thus, each flower points to the All-Glorious Sapient One to the number of the tree's blossoms.


And in the tree, which is a word, the point of a seed in a fruit, which is like a letter, is a small coffer containing the index and programme of the whole tree. And so on. To continue the same analogy, through the manifestation of the Name of Sapient and Wise, all the lines and pages of the book of the universe-and not only its lines, but all its words, letters, and points-have been made as miracles so that even if all causes should gather together, they could not make the like of a single point, nor could they dispute it.


Yes, since each of the creational signs of this mighty Qur'an of the universe display miracles to the number of points and letters of those signs, in no way could confused chance, blind force, aimless, anarchic, unconscious Nature interfere in that wise, percipient particular balance and most sensitive order. If they had interfered, some traces of confusion would certainly have been apparent. Whereas disorder of no sort is to be seen anywhere.




F i r s t T o p i c : As is explained in the Tenth Word, it is a most basic rule that infinitely perfect beauty and infinitely beautiful perfection want to behold themselves and show and exhibit themselves. It is as a consequenceof this basic general rule that the Pre-Eternal Inscriber of the mighty book of the universe through the universe and through all its pages lines and even letters and points through the numerous tongues of all beings from the most particular to the most universal makes known and loved the beauty of His perfection and perfection of His beauty in order to make Himself and His perfections known and to display His beauty and make Himself loved.


And so, O heedless man! If in the face of the Sapient and All-Wise Ruler of Glory and Beauty's making Himself known to you and loved by you by means of all His creatures in this brilliant, endless fashion you do not recognize Him with belief and you do not make yourself loved by Him with your worship, you should know just what a compounded ignorance it is and what a loss; so come to your senses!


Second Topic of the Second Matter: There is no place for partnership in the dominions of the universe's All-Powerful and Wise Maker. For since in everything is infinitely perfect order, it does not accept partners. If many hands intervene in one matter, it confuses it. If there are two kings in a country, two governors of a town, or two headmen in a village, disorder will occur in all the matters of the country, town, and village. Similarly, the fact that the most minor official does not accept the interference of others in his duties shows that the most fundamental characteristic of rulership is independence and singleness. That is to say, order necessitates unity, and rulership necessitates independence.


If impotent man needy for assistance a temporary shadow of rulership rejects interference in this way, the true, absolute rulership at the degree of dominicality of One possessing absolute power will certainly reject interference with all its strength. If there had been even the tiniest interference, the order would have been spoilt.


However, the universe has been created in such a way that in order to create a seed, power sufficient to create a tree is necessary. And in order to create a tree, power sufficient to create the universe is necessary. And if there was a partner who interfered in the universe, he would have to share in the tiniest seed. For the seed is a sample of the universe. So then two dominicalities which cannot reside together in the vast universe, would have to reside in a seed, and even in a minute particle. And this is the most impossible and meaningless of impossibilities and false delusions. Know what an infinitely compounded contradiction, error, and falsehood are unbelief and associating partners with God, which necessitate the impotence-even if only in a seed-of the Absolutely Powerful One Who holds in the balance of His justice and order of His wisdom all the states and attributes of the vast universe; and know what an infinitely compounded truth, reality and verity is Divine Unity, and say: "All praise and thanks be to God for belief!"




Through His Names of Sapient and All-Wise, the All-Powerful Maker has included thousands of well-ordered worlds in this world. Within those worlds, He created man as a centre and pivot who of all creatures manifests and is the means to the wisdom and purposes in the universe. And the most important of the instances of wisdom and beneficial things in the sphere of the universe look to man. And in the human sphere, He made sustenance a centre; in the human world most of the instances of wisdom and benefits look to sustenance and are manifest through it. The manifestation of the Name of All-Wise is apparent in brilliant form in man through consciousness and the pleasure of sustenance. While each of the hundreds of sciences discovered by means of human consciousness doscribes one manifestation of the Name of Sapient in one realm of creation.


For example, if the science of medicine was to be asked: "What is the universe?", it would be bound to reply: "It is an exceedingly orderly and perfect vast pharmacy. All remedies are prepared and stored up in it in the best way."


And if the science of chemistry was asked: "What is the earth?", it would reply: "It is a perfectly ordered chemist's shop."


While the science of engineering would reply: "It is totally faultless, perfect factory."


And the science of agriculture would reply: "It is an infinitely productive, regular and well-ordered field and garden which produces all kinds of seeds at the required time."


The science of commerce would reply: "It is an extremely well-set-out exhibition, orderly market, and shop stocked with most artistic wares."


The science of economics would reply: "It is an exceedingly well ordered warehouse containing every sort and kind of food."


The science of dietetics would reply: "It is a dominical kitchen and cauldron of the Most Merciful in which is cooked in most regular fashion hundreds of thousands of the most delicious foods."


The science of soldiering would reply: "The earth is a military camp. Although there are four hundred thousand different nations in that army in the spring, newly taken under arms with their tents pitched on the face of the earth, they are given their rations, uniforms, weapons, training, and discharges, which are all different for each nation, in perfect order, with no confusion and none being forgotten, through the command, power, compassion of a single Commander-in-Chief, from His treasury; they are all administered in the most regular fashion."


And if the science of electricity was to be asked: "What is this world?", it would certainly reply: "The roof of this magnificent palace of the universe has been adorned with innumerable orderly and balanced electric lamps. However, the order and balance are so wondrous that foremost the sun, and those heavenly lamps, which are a thousand times larger than the earth, do not spoil their balance, although they burn continuously; they do not explode or burst into flames. Their expenditure is endless, so where do their income and fuel and combustible material come from? Why are they not exhausted? Why is the balance not spoilt with their burning? A small lamp goes out if it is not tended regularly. See the wisdom and power of the ALL-Wise One of Glory, Who makes the sun, which according to astronomy is a million times larger than the earth and a million years older, burn without coal or oil, without being extinguished; say: `All Glory be to God!' Say: `What wonders God has willed! Blessed be God! There is no god but He!' to the number of seconds of the sun's existence. .


"This means there is a wondrous order in these heavenly lamps, and they are tended with the greatest care. It is as if the boiler of those huge, numerous fiery masses, those light-shedding lamps, is a Hell whose heat , is never exhausted; it provides them with lightless heat. While the machinery and central factory of those electric lamps is a perpetual Paradise; it provides them with light and luminosity; through the greatest manifestation of the Names of Sapient and All-Wise, they continue to burn in orderly fashion."


And so on; through the certain testimony of hundreds of sciences like these, the universe has been adorned with innumerable instances of wisdom, purposes, and beneficial things within a faultless, perfect order. And the order and wisdom given through that wondrous, all-encompassing wisdom to the totality of the universe have been included in small measure in seeds and the tiniest living creatures. It is clear and self-evident that aims, purposes, instances of wisdom, and benefits can only be followed through choice, will, intention, and volition, not through any other way. Just as they could not be the work of unconscious causes and Nature, which lack will, choice, and purpose, so too they could not interfere in them.


That is to say, it cannot be described what an extraordinary ignorance and foolishness it is not to know or to deny the All-Wise Maker, the Agent with Choice, Whom the universe and all its beings necessitate and demonstrate through their infinite order and the instances of wisdom they contain. Yes, if there is anything astonishing in the world, it is such denial. For the endless aspects of order and instances of wisdom in the beings in the universe testify to His existence and Unity, so that even the most profoundly ignorant can understand what blindness and ignorance it is not to see or not to recognize Him. I might even say that among the people of unbelief, the Sophists, who are supposed to be stupid because they denied the universe's existence, are the most intelligent. For since on accepting its existence, it was not possible not to believe in God and its Creator, they started to deny the universe's existence. They denied themselves as well. Saying, "There is nothing," they abdicated their intelligences, and being saved from the boundless unreasonableness-under the guise of reason-of the other deniers, they in one sense drew close to reason.






As is indicated in the Tenth Word, for a Wise Maker, a most wise master builder, to follow carefully hundreds of instances of wisdom in each stone of a palace, then not to construct the palace's roof so it falls into ruin and all the innumerable purposes and instances of wisdom are lost, is something no conscious being could accept. So too it is in no way possible that having followed out of his perfect wisdom tons of benefits, aims, and purposes in a tiny seed, one possessing absolute wisdom should go to the great expense of the mighty tree as vast as a mountain in order for it to produce a single benefit, a single small aim, a single fruit worthy virtually nothing, and so to be wastefully prodigal in a way entirely opposed and contrary to his wisdom.


In just the same way, the All-Wise Maker attaches hundreds of instances of wisdom to each of the beings in the palace of the universe, and equips them to perform hundreds of duties, and to all trees bestows instances of wisdom to the number of its fruits and gives duties to the number of its flowers. For Him not to bring about the resurrection of the dead and the Great Gathering and for all those incalculable numbers of purposes and instances of wisdom and infinite duties to be meaningless, futile, pointless, and without purpose or benefit, would impute absolute impotence to that Absolutely Powerful One's perfect power, just as it would impute futility and purposelessness to that Absolutely Wise One's perfect wisdom, and utter ugliness to the beauty of that Absolutely Compassionate One's mercy, and boundless tyranny to that Absolutely Just One's perfect justice. It would be quite simply to deny the wisdom, mercy, and justice in the universe, which may be seen by everyone. It would be an extraordinary impossibility comprising innumerable absurdities. The people of misguidance should come and see just what a terrifying darkness, blackness, there is in their misguidance, just as there is in their graves; and how they are the nests of scorpions. And they should know that belief in the Hereafter is a way beautiful and luminous as Paradise, and should embrace belief.






This consists of two Topics.


F i r s t T o p i c : The fact that necessitated by His Name of AllWise, the All-Glorious Maker follows the lightest way, the shortest path, the easiest fashion, the most beneficial form shows that there is no wastefulness, futility, and absence of benefits in the nature of things. Wastefulness is the opposite of the Name of Wise, so too frugality is necessitated by it and is its fundamental principle.


O prodigal, wasteful man! Know that by not adopting frugality, the most basic principle in the universe, you have acted in a way entirely contrary to reality! You should understand what an essential, encompassing principle is taught by the verse,


Eat and drink, but waste not in excess.


S e c o n d T o p i c : It may be said that the Names of Sapient and All-Wise point to and necessitate the Prophethood of the Noble Prophet (Upon whom be blessings and peace) to the degree of being self-evident.


Yes, since a most meaningful book requires a teacher to teach it; and an exquisite beauty requires a mirror to show itself and see itself; and a most perfect art requires a herald to announce it; for sure among mankind, who is addressed by the mighty book of the universe, in every letter of which are hundreds of meanings and instances of wisdom, will be a perfect guide, a supreme teacher. For then he may teach the sacred and true wisdom in the book; that is, make known the existence of the wisdom and purposes in the universe; indeed, be the means of the appearance, and even existence, of the dominical purposes in the universe's creation; and make known and act as a mirror to the perfect art of the ' Creator, and the beauty of His Names, which He willed to display throughout the universe, showing their importance.


And since the Creator wants to make Himself loved through all His beings and to be responded to by all His conscious creatures, one of them will respond with comprehensive worship in the name of all of them in the face of those comprehensive dominical manifestations; he will bring the land and sea to ecstasy, turn the gazes of those conscious creatures to the One Who made the art with a tumultuous announcement and exaltation which will cause the heavens and earth to reverberate; and with sacred instruction and teaching and a Qur'an of Mighty Stature which will draw the attention of all reasonable people, will demonstrate in the best way the Divine purposes of that Sapient and All-Wise Maker; and who will respond in most complete and perfect manner to the manifestations of all His instances of wisdom and of His Beauty and Glory; the existence of such a one is as necessary, as essential for the universe as the existence of the sun. And the one who did this and performed those functions in most perfect form was self-evidently the Most Noble Prophet (Peace and blessings be upon him). In which case, all the wisdom in the universe necessitates the Prophethood of Muhammed (PBUH) as much as the sun necessitates light, and light, the day.


Yes, just as through their greatest manifestation, the Names of Sapient and All-Wise necessitate the Prophethood of Muhammed (PBUH) at the maximum degree, so too numerous Most Beautiful Names like Allah, Most Merciful, All-Compassionate, Loving, Bestower, Munificent, Beauteous, and Sustainer, necessitate through their greatest manifestation apparent in the universe, at the maximum degree and with absolute certainty, the Prophethood of Muhammed (PBUH).


For example, the all-embracing mercy which is the manifestation of the Name of Most Merciful is apparent through the One sent as a Mercy to All the Worlds. And Almighty God's making Himself known and loved, which is the manifestation of the Name of Loving, gives the fruit of that Beloved of the Sustainer of All the Worlds, and finds response in him. And all instances of beauty, which are the manifestation of the Name of Beauteous, that is, the beauty of the Divine Essence, the beauty of the Divine Names, beauty of art, and the beauty of creatures, are seen and displayed in the Mirror of Muhammed (PBUH). And the manifestations of the splendour of dominicality and sovereignty of Divinity are known, become apparent and understood, and are confirmed through the Prophethood of Muhammed (PBUH), the herald of the dominion of dominicality. And so on, like these examples, most of the Most Beautiful Names are shining proofs of the Prophethood of Muhammed (PBUH).


I n S h o r t : Since the universe exists and cannot be denied, observable truths like wisdom, grace, mercy, beauty, order, balance, and adornment, which are like the colours, embellishments, lights, rays, arts, lives, and bonds of the universe, can in no w ay be denied. Since it is not possible to deny these attributes and acts, certainly the Necessarily Existent, All-Wise, Munificent, Compassionate, Beauteous, Sapient, and Just One also, Who is the One signified by those attributes, and is the Doer of those deeds, and the Sun and Source of those lights, can in no way be denied. And certainly the Prophethood of Muhammed (Upon whom be blessings and peace), who is the supreme guide, most perfect teacher, pre-eminent herald, solver of the talisman of the universe, and mirror ·of the Eternally Besought One, and beloved of the Most Merciful, and the means of those attributes and acts being known, indeed of their perfection, and even of their being realized, can in no way be denied. Like the lights of the world of reality and of the reality of the universe, his Prophethood is the universe's most brilliant light.


Blessings and peace be upon him to the number of seconds of the days and of the particles of creatures.


Glory be unto You! We have no knowledge save that which you have taught us; indeed, You are All-Knowing, All-Wise.


* * *




The Divine Name of Single




In the Name of God, the Merciful, the Compassionate. Say: He is God, the One and Only.


[One fine point of this verse and a manifestation of the Divine Name of Single, which is a Greatest Name comprising the Names of One and Unique, or one of the six lights comprising the Greatest Name, appeared to me in Eskisehir Prison in the month of Shawwal. Referring the details of that greatest manifestation to the Risale-i Nur, we shall here explain extremely briefly in seven short Indications the true affirmation of Divine Unity which the Name of Single demonstrates through its maximum manifestation.]






The Twenty-Second Word and Thirty-Third Letter have shown in detail that through a greatest manifestation, the Greatest Name of Single has placed a seal, a stamp, of Divine Unity on the universe as a whole and on each realm of beings in it, and on each individual being. Here, we shall point out only three stamps


F i r s t S t a m p : The manifestation of Divine Singleness has placed a seal of Unity on the face of the universe whereby it has made it an indivisible whole. One who does not have power of disposal over the whole universe cannot be the true owner of any part of it. The seal is this:


Like the finest machinery in a factory, the beings and realms of beings in the universe assist one another, and work to complete each other's functions. With their solidarity and co o eration their answering each other's requests and hastening to assist to each other, their embracing each other and being one within the other, they form a unity of existence according to which, like the members of the human body, they cannot be separated from each other. If someone controls one of its members yet does not have control over all of them, his mastery over the single member will not be true mastery.


Thus, this co-operation, solidarity, mutual response, and embracing one another forms a most brilliant supreme seal of Divine Unity.


S e c o n d S t a m p : Through the manifestation of the Name of Single on the face of the earth and face of the spring are such a brilliant seal of Divine Oneness and stamp of Unity that it proves that one who does not administer all the living creatures on the face of the globe together with all their individuals and attributes and states, and who does not know and see all of them all together, and cannot create them, cannot interfere in anything in respect of creation. The stamp is this:


Disregarding the most orderly, yet hidden, stamps of the mineral substances, the elements, and inanimate creatures of the earth, consider the following stamp woven with the threads of the two hundred thousand animal species and two hundred thousand plant species: we see with our own eyes in the spring on the earth that all things with their different duties, different forms, different sustenance, different members, despite their being one within the other and all mixed up together, are given everything they need, without confusion and without error, with complete distinction and differentiation, with extremely sensitive balance, without difficulty, at exactly the right time, from unexpected places. This situation, this planning, this administration forms such a seal of Divine Unity and stamp of Oneness that one who cannot create all those creatures at once from nothing, can interfere in nothing at all in respect of dominicality and creation. For if they had interfered, the equilibrium of that utterly vast administration would have been spoilt. However, man apparently serves the smooth application of those laws of dominicality, through the Divine command.


T h i r d S t a m p : This stamp of Divine Oneness is on man's face, indeed, is man's face: one who does not hold in his gaze all the human beings who have come and will come from the time of Adam till the end of the world, and cannot place on each of their faces a distinguishing mark, indeed, hundreds of distinguishing marks, can have no part in respect of creation in the stamp of Unity on the face of any single one of them. Yes, the one who places that stamp on man's face must surely hold within his view and encompass with his knowledge all the members of the human race, for although the basic members of each person's face resemble one another, they all possess points of difference. The fact that all the members of the face, like the eye and ear, resemble each other are a stamp of Unity testifying that human kind's Maker is One, so too the many wise differences-unlike other species-distinguishing one from the other so they are not confused and to preserve the rights of all of them, in addition to showing the Maker of Unity's will, choice, and volition, are all different, subtle stamps of Divine Oneness. They show that one who cannot create all men and animals, indeed, the universe, cannot apply that stamp.






The worlds, species, and elements of the universe are so intertwined and interwoven that a cause which does not possess the universe as a whole cannot have true disposal over any of its elements. The manifestation of Unity proceeding from the Name of Single has included the whole universe within a unity so that everything proclaims it. For example, the universe's lamp, the sun, being one indicates that the whole universe belongs to one, so too, the sponges of clouds which water the garden of the earth being the same, and the rain which comes to aid of all living creatures being the same and falling everywhere, and most of the animal and plant species spreading freely over the earth and their species and habitats being the same, are most certain indications and testimonies indicating that all those beings, together with the places they are found, are the property of a single being.


Following this analogy, the realms of beings in the universe are so interwoven they have made the universe into a totality which is indivisible in respect of creation. A cause which does not have rule over the whole universe can govern nothing at all in respect of dominicality and creativity; it cannot make a single particle heed it.






Through its greatest manifestation, the Name of Single has made the universe into innumerable missives of the Eternally Besought One whereby each contains seals of Divine Oneness and stamps of Unity to the number of its words-as though printed-and points to its Scribe to the number of those seals.


Yes, all flowers, all fruits, all grasses, and all animals even, and all trees are seals of Divine Oneness and stamps of Divine Unity, which, together with the places they are found which take the form of missives, are like signatures showing the one who wrote the place. For example, a buttercup in a garden is like a seal of the garden's inscriber. Whosever seal the flower is, all the flowers of that sort on the face of the earth indicate clearly that they are his words and that the garden too is his writing. This means that all things ascribe everything to the One Who created them, indicating to a maximum affirmation of Divine Unity.




In addition to being clear as the sun, the greatest manifestation of the Name of Single is so reasonable as to be necessary and can be accepted with infinite ease. Numerous proofs demonstrating that the association of partners with God, the opposite and opponent of that manifestation, is infinitely difficult and infinitely far from reason, indeed, impossible and precluded, have been explained in various parts of the Risale-i Nur. For the present referring the details of the points of those proofs to those treatises, we shall here expound only three Points.


T h e F i r s t : We have demonstrated with most certain proofs, briefly at the end of the Tenth and Twenty-Ninth Words and in detail at the end of the Twentieth Letter that in relation to the power of the Single and Unique One, the creation of the greatest thing is as easy as the smallest. It administers a large tree as comfortably as a small fruit. Whereas if referred to numerous causes, each fruit becomes as difficult and expensive as a tree, and a flower as difficult and troublesome as the spring.


Yes, if the equipment of an army is made on the orders of a single commander in a single factory, it is as easy as making the equipment of a single soldier, whereas if the equipment of all the soldiers is made in different factories and the army's administration passes from a single officer , to many, then each soldier will require factories to the number of the army's soldiers. In just the same way, if everything is ascribed to the Single and Unique One, the innumerable members of a whole species of, being become as easy as a single member. While if attributed to causes each becomes as difficult as the whole species.


Yes, both unity and singleness come about through everything being connected with the One of Unity, and through reliance on Him. And this reliance and connection may become a boundless power and strength for the thing. Through the strength of the reliance and connection, that small thing may perform works far exceeding its individual strength, and produce results. While something very powerful which does not rely on the Single Unique One, and is not connected to Him, may perform small works in accordance with its individual strength, and the results diminish accordingly.


For example, a very strong, bold man who is not a regular soldier is compelled to carry his own ammunition and provisions himself, and so can hold out only temporarily against ten enemy. For his individual strength is limited to that. But a soldier who through membership of the army is connected to and relies on the Commander-in-Chief, is not compelled to carry his own sources of strength and provisions; his connection and reliance become an inexhaustible strength for him, like a treasury.


Through the strength of his connection, he may capture a field marshal of the defeated enemy army, together with thousands of others.


That is to say, in Divine Unity and Divine Singleness, through the strength of the connection, like an ant may defeat a Pharaoh and a fly defeat a Nimrod and a microbe a tyrant, a seed as tiny as a chickpea may bear on its shoulders a pine-tree as majestic as a mountain. Yes, a commander-in-chief may send an army to the assistance of one soldier and assemble an army behind the soldier, so then he has the moral support of an army behind him and through that strength may perform great works in the commander's name. Similarly, since the Pre-Eternal Monarch is Single and One, He has no need of any sort. If to suppose that He did have need, He would send all things to the assistance of everything and assemble the army of the universe behind one thing and everything could rely on a strength as great as the universe and in the face of everything, all things-to suppose that He did have the need-could become like the Single Commander's strength. If there was no Divine Singleness, everything would lose all this strength and become as nothing; their results too would dwindle to nothing.


Thus, the appearance of these truly wondrous works out of most insignificant unimportant things which we all the time observe with our eyes self-evidently demonstrates Divine Singleness and Divine Oneness. If it was not for them, the results, fruits, and works of everything would decrease to the substance and strength of each thing; they would be reduced to nothing. And nothing of the infinite abundance and infinite inexpensiveness of the extremely valuable things we see around us would remain. A melon or pomegranate we now buy for a small sum, we would not be able to obtain for a fortune. Yes, all the ease, all the abundance, all the inexpensiveness in the world arise from Divine Unity and testify to Divine Singleness.


S e c o n d P o i n t : Beings are created in two ways; one is creation from nothing called `origination' and `invention,' and other is the giving of existence through bringing together existent elements and things, called `composition' and `assembling.' When in accordance with the manifestation of Divine Singleness and mystery of Divine Oneness, this occurs with an infinite ease, indeed, such ease as to be necessary. If not ascribed to Divine Singleness, it would be infinitely difficult and irrational, difficult to the degree of impossibility. However, the fact that the beings in the universe come into existence with infinite ease and facility and no difficulty at all, and in perfect form, self-evidently shows the manifestation of Divine Singleness and proves that everything is directly the art of the Single One of Glory. '


Yes, if things are ascribed to the Single One of Unity, they are created from nothing through His infinite power, the immensity of which is perceived through its works, like striking a match. And through His allembracing, infinite knowledge everything is appointed a measure like an immaterial mould. The particles of a11 things are situated easily in the mould existent in knowledge, in accordance with the form and plan of everything in the mirror of knowledge, and they preserve their positions in good order.


If it is necessary to gather together particles from round about, in accordance with the comprehensive principles of power and laws of knowledge, the particles are bound together in regular fashion like the soldiers of an obedient army. Driven by power in accordance with knowledge, they come, enter the mould existent in knowledge in accordance with the measure of Divine Determining, which encompasses the thing's existence, and with ease form its being. Like the reflection in a mirror being clothed in external existence on paper by means of a camera, or the invisible writing of a letter appearing when it is spread with a special substance, with the greatest ease power clothes with external existence the essences of things and forms of beings present in the mirror of the Single One of Unity's pre-eternal knowledge; it brings them from the World of Meaning to the Apparent World, and shows them to us.


If beings are not ascribed to the Single One of Unity, it would be necessary to gather together the being of a fly from all round the earth and from the elements, quite simply sifting the face of the earth and the elements and bringing from everywhere the particles particular to its being. And in order to situate them in proper order in its being so full of art, a physical mould, indeed moulds to the number of its members would be necessary. Then too the senses in its being, and its fine, subtle immaterial faculties like spirit, they would have to be drawn in a particular measure from the immaterial worlds.


Thus, the creation of a fly in this way would be as difficult as that of the universe. The difficulties would be multiplied a hundred times, indeed it would be a compounded impossibility. For as all the people of religion and scientists are agreed, nothing apart from the Single One can create from nothing and non-existence. In which case, if referred to causes and Nature, everything may be given existence only through being gathered together from most things.




T h i r d P o i n t : We shall explain briefly two or three comparisons which are elucidated in other parts of the Risale-i Nur, showing how, if ascribed to a Single One of Uriity, all things become as easy as a single thing, whereas if referred to causes and Nature, the existence of a single thing becomes as difficult as that of all things.


For example: If the positions and administration of a thousand soldiers are referred to one officer, and that of one soldier to ten officers, to command the one soldier will be ten times more difficult than commanding a battalion. For those who command him will form obstacles to one another, and in the resulting disorder, the soldier will have no peace. Whereas if to obtain the desired result and situation a battalion is referred to a single officer, he can achieve the result easily, without difficulty, and give it that situation. If to obtain the result and situation, it is referred to the soldiers without a chief, leader, or sergeant, they will only be achieved with much dispute and difficulty, in great disorder, and deficiently.


Second Comparison: For example, if a master builder is appointed to give the stones in the dome of a mosque like Aya Sophia their suspended position, he may do so easily. But if it is referred to the stones themselves, they will all have to be both absolutely dominant and absolutely subject to each other in order to support each other in that suspended position. For the work the master builder performs easily to be carried out, work a hundred times greater, of a hundred builders, will have to be carried out, then such a position may be achieved.


Third Comparison: For example, since the globe of the earth is an official, a soldier, of the Single One of Unity which heeds that single One's single command, results are obtained like the change of the seasons, the alternation of day and night, the lofty, majestic motions of the heavens, and the changes in the cinema-like celestial scenes. On receiving the single command of that Single One, in rapturous joy at its duty, a single soldier like the earth rises to revolve in two motions like an ecstatic Mevlevi dervish, and is the means to those splendid results being achieved. It is as if the single soldier is commanding magnificent manoeuvres on the face of the universe.


If not ascribed to a Single One Whose rule of Divinity and sovereignty of dominicality encompass the whole universe, and whose command and rule cover all beings, those results, heavenly maneouvres, and earthly seasons could only be obtained by millions of stars and globes a thousand times larger than the earth travelling the long distance of millions of years every twenty-four hours and every year.


Thus, those results being obtained through the two motions-in its orbit and on its axis like an ecstatic Mevlevi dervish-of a single official like the globe of the earth, is an example of the infinite ease there is in Divine Unity. While their being obtained through endlessly long ways millions of times more difficult than the motion described above is an example of just how difficult, indeed, impossible is the way of associating partners with God and unbelief, and just what impossible, absurd , things are found on it..


Consider the ignorance of those who worship causes and Nature through the following example: you can understand how far from reason it is and how ignorant to suppose that "After preparing in orderly fashion through his wondrous art the parts or machinery of a wonderful factory, or marvellous clock, or splendid palace, or fine book, a person does not himself assemble the parts easily and work them, but with protracted and high expense makes each part, each mechanism, and even each sheet of paper and pen into extraordinary machines in order to make the parts themselves construct and work the factory, palace, and clock, and write the book instead of the craftsman. And he refers to them the art and craft, which is the means of displaying all his arts and skills, which he has great desire to exhibit."


In just the same way, those who attribute creation to causes and Nature fall into a compounded ignorance. For above Nature and causes are extremely well-ordered works of art, and they too are artefacts like other creatures. The one who makes them thus makes their results too, and displays them together. The one who makes the seed, makes also the tree above it. And the one who makes the tree, is the one who makes the fruits above it. Otherwise for other, different natures and causes to come into existence, further well-ordered natures and causes would be necessary. And so on, ad infinitum. One would have to accept the existence of an infinite, meaningless, impossible chain of illusory fancies. This would be the most extraordinary ignorance.




We have demonstrated with decisive proofs in many places that the most fundamental characteristic of rulership is independence and separateness. The weak shadow of rulership in impotent men even vehemently rejects the interference of others and does not permit others to meddle in its duty, in order to preserve its independence. Many kings have mercilessly put to death their innocent children and loved brothers on account of this rejection of interference. That is to say, the most basic characteristics of true rulership, and its inseparable necessities and perpetual essentials are independence, separateness, and the rejection of the interference of others. .


It is because of this most basic characteristic that Divine rulership, which is at the degree of absolute dominicality, most vehemently rejects the association of any partners and the participation and interference of others. And the Qur'an of Miraculous Exposition too, insistently, repeatedly, and sternly, points out the affirmation of Divine Unity and rejects with severe threats the association of partners with God.


Thus, the Divine rulership in dominicality necessitates Divine Unity in definite fashion and shows a most powerful motive and necessitating cause. So too the infinitely perfect order and harmony on the face of the universe, apparent from the totality of the universe and the stars to the plants, animals, minerals down to particulars, individuals, and minute particles, are an indubitably veracious witness to and clear proof of that Singleness and Unity. For if others had interfered, this most sensitive balance, order, and regularity of the universe would have been spoilt and signs of disorder would have been apparent. In accordance with the meaning of the verse,


If there were in the heavens and the earth, other gods besides God, there would have been confusion in both!


this wondrous, perfect order of the universe would have been thrown into confusion and been spoilt. Whereas, according to the verse,


So turn your vision again; do you see any flaw?,


from minute particles to the planets, from the ground to the Divine Throne, there is no sign of fault, defect, or confusion to be seen. Thus the order of the universe and of creatures and the balance of beings, demonstrate most brilliantly the greatest manifestation of the Name of Single and testify to Divine Unity.


Moreover, since, through the mystery of the manifestation of Divine Oneness, the tiniest living creature is a miniature sample of the universe and a small index of it, only the One in the grasp of Whose power is the whole universe can lay claim to it. And since, in regard to creation, a seed is not inferior to a tree, and a tree is a small universe, and all living beings are like small universes and small worlds, this mystery of Divine Oneness has made the association of partners with God impossible.


Through this mystery, the universe is not only an indivisible whole, but in respect of its nature, like a universal whose division and being broken up into parts is impossible and which does not accept participation and numerous hands in its creation. Thus, since each part of it is


particular and individual part and the whole also is a universal, there is no possibility in any respect for the participation of others in it. It proves to the degree of being self-evident the greatest manifestation of the Name of Single, the reality of the affirmation of Divine Unity, and this mystery of Divine Oneness.


Yes, since the realms of beings in the universe are interwoven and interbonded and the functions of each look to all, it has made the universe, in respect of dominicality and creation, like an indivisible whole. So too, the all-encompassing general acts in the universe are interwoven and interpenetrated. That is, for example, within the act of giving life, the acts of nurturing and giving of sustenance are apparent at the same instant. And within those acts of nurturing and giving of life, at the same time the acts of ordering and decking out the living creature's body are observed. And within those acts of nurturing, giving life, ordering, and decking out, at the same time the acts of giving of form, raising, and regulating strike the eye. And so on, since such all-encompassing and general acts are interpenetrated and one within the other and blended together like the seven colours in light, indeed, are united; and since being the same in regard to their natures each of those acts encompasses and embraces most beings and are a single act; and since the one who performs the acts must be the same; and since each of them pervades the whole universe and unites with the other acts in co-operation and assistance; it has made the universe like an indivisible whole. Similarly, since all living creatures are like seeds, indexes, and samples of the universe, it has made the universe from the point of view of dominicality like a universal whose division and breaking into parts is impossible. That is to say, the universe is such a totality that to be Sustainer of a part of it is only possible by being Sustainer of the whole. And it is such a universal that each part of it has become like a single member; to make any one single member submit to His dominicality is only possible by subjugating the universal.




Dominical Singleness and Divine Unity are the means and basis of all perfections, and the source and origin of the purposes and wisdom in the universe's creation. They are also the source and sole means of attaining the wishes and desires of conscious beings and rational beings, and particularly of man. If not for Divine Singleness, all man's wishes and demands would be extinguished. The results of the universe's creation would also decline to nothing, and the majority of existent, certain perfections would be annihilated.


For example, man has an intense, unshakeable, passionate desire for immortality. Only One Who through the mystery of Singleness holds the whole universe in His grasp and can close down this world and open up the Hereafter as easily as shutting up one house and opening another can bring about that desire. And like this desire, man's thousands of desires which stretch to eternity and are spread throughout the universe are tied to the mystery of Singleness and the reality of Divine Unity. If not for Divine Singleness, they would not be, they would be fruitless. And if not for the Single One Who through Divine Unity has disposal over the entire universe, those desires would not come about. And even supposing they did, they would do so very deficiently.


It is because of this mighty mystery that the Qur'an of Miraculous Exposition repeatedly and fervently and with elevated eloquence teaches Divine Unity and Singleness. Similarly, all the prophets, purified scholars, and saints found all their greatest pleasure and happiness in the Confession of Divine Unity, "There is no god but God."






Just as Muhammed (Peace and blessings be upon him) taught, proved, and proclaimed in most perfect form the true affirmation of Divine Unity in all its degrees, so too his Prophethood was established as surely and certainly as Divine Unity. For since he taught Divine Unity, the greatest reality in the sphere of existence, together with all its truths, it may be said that all the arguments proving Divine Unity indirectly though decisively prove his prophethood, the authenticity of his duty, and the rightness of his cause. Yes, a prophethood which discovered and truly taught Divine Singleness and Unity, which bring together those thousands of elevated truths, is most definitely necessitated and required by that Singleness and Unity; they certainly require it.


Thus, Muhammed (Upon whom be blessings and peace) carried out that duty to the letter. Now, we shall explain by way of example, three out of numerous evidences and causes which testify to the importance and elevatedness of his collective personality, attesting that it is a sun in the universe.


T h e F i r s t : In accordance with the rule "The cause is like the doer," the equivalent of all the good deeds performed throughout the centuries by all his Community has passed to the book of good deeds of Muhammed (Upon whom be blessings and peace). So too, by thinking of the certain acceptance of the `salawat' prayers for the Prophet (PBUH), which every day all his Community recite for him, and the station and degree that those endless prayers necessitate, it may be understood what a sun in the universe is the collective personality of Muhammed (Upon whom be blessings and peace).


T h e S e c o n d : Think of the spiritual progress of Muhammed (Upon whom be blessings and peace), whose essential being was the source, seed, life, and means of the mighty tree of the World of Islam: it arose from his performing with his extraordinary capacity and faculties the sacred worship and glorifications which form the spiritual aspects of the World of Islam, perceiving all their meaning; then you may understand how much more elevated than other sainthoods was the sainthood of Muhammedan (PBUH) worship, by which he rose to the degree of being the beloved of God.


At one time, a single glorification unfolded to me in one of the prayers in a manner close to how the Companions of the Prophet perceived them, and it appeared to me as important as a month's worship. I understood through this the Companions' high worth. It meant that at the start of Islam, the effulgence and light proceeding from the sacred words had a different quality. Through their newness, they had a different flavour, subtlety, and freshness which with the passage of time have become hidden and obscured and have diminished through neglect. Muhammed (PBUH) received them with his wondrous capacity new and fresh from their original source, the Most Pure and Holy Essence, and absorbed and assimilated them. As a consequence of this, he could receive the effulgence from a single glorification that others could receive only from a years' worship.


Thus, from this point of view you can understand to what degree Muhammed (Upon whom be blessings and peace) progressed through the degrees of perfections, which are without bounds or limit.


T h e T h i r d : Since mankind is the pivot of all the purposes in the universe of the universe's Creator; and since with its superior understanding, mankind has received all the addresses of that Glorious One; and since Muhammed (PBUH) was the most famous and renowned of mankind, and as his works and achievements testify, its most perfect and magnificent individual; that Single One of Glory took Muhammed (PBUH) as His addressee in the name of mankind, indeed, on account of the whole universe; He made manifest in him boundless effulgences and endless perfections.


Thus, there are numerous points like these three that prove conclusively that just as the collective personality of Muhammed (PBUH) is the spiritual sun of the universe, so too is it the supreme sign of the mighty Qur'an known as the universe, and the Greatest Name of that Supreme Distinguisher between Truth and Falsehood, and the mirror of the greatest manifestation of the Name of Single. And we beseech the Single, Unique, Eternally Besought One that blessings and peace to the total number of particles of the universe multiplied by all the seconds of all the minutes of all time descend on Muhammed (Peace and blessings be upon him) from the infinite treasury of His mercy.


Glory be unto You! We have no knowledge save that have taught us; indeed, You are All-Knowing, All-Wise.


* * *




The Divine Name of Ever-Living




In the Name of God, the Merciful, the Compassionate.


Look, then, to the signs of God's mercy-how He restores life to the earth after its death-verily He it is Who quickens the dead, for He is powerful over all things.


A fine point concerning this mighty verse, together with another about the following mighty verse,




God! There is no god but He, the Living, the Self Subsisting, Eternal. No slumber can seize Him nor sleep,


together with a manifestation of the Name of Ever-Living, which is the Greatest Name or one of the two lights of the Greatest Name or one light of its six lights, appeared to my mind in the distance in the month of Shawwal in Eskisehir Prison. I did not record it, for at the time I was unable to swiftly capture that sacred bird. Now after it has drawn away, I shall at least point out briefly by means of a number of `Signs' a few rays of that supreme truth and sublime light.




The index-like answer to the questions "What is life?" "What is its true nature and purpose?", which are a greatest manifestation of the Names of Ever-Living and Giver of Life, is this:


Life is:


* the most important aim of the universe;

* and its greatest result;

* and its most brilliant light;

* and its subtlest leaven;

* and its distilled essence;

* and its most perfect fruit;

* and its most elevated perfection;

* and its finest beauty

* and its most beautiful adornment;

* and the secret of its undividedness;

* and the bond of its unity;

* and the source of its perfections;

* and in regard to art and nature, a most wondrous being endowed with spirit;

* and a miraculous reality which makes the tiniest creature like a universe;

* and in addition to its being the means of the universe being situated in a tiny animate creature, and its showing a sort of index of the huge universe in the creature, it is a most extraordinary miracle of Divine power which connects the animate creature to most beings and makes it a tiny universe;

* and it is a wondrous Divine art which enlarges a tiny part to being the greatest whole and makes a particular like a universal or world, and shows that in regard to dominicality the universe is an indivisible whole or universal that cannot be broken into parts and which accepts no participation;

* and it is the most brilliant, the most decisive, the most perfect of proofs testifying to the necessary existence of the Ever-Living and Self Subsistent One; and among Divine artefacts is the lightest and most apparent, and the most valuable and the most abundant, and the purest, most shining, and most meaningful embroidery of dominical art;

* and it is a graceful, refined, delicate manifestation of Divine mercy which makes other beings serve itself;

* and it is a most comprehensive mirror of the Divine attributes;

* and it is a wonder of dominical creation comprising the manifestations of numerous Most Beautiful Names like Merciful, Provider, Compassionate, Munificent, and All-Wise, which subjects to itself many truths like sustenance, wisdom, grace, and mercy, and is the source and origin of all the senses like sight, hearing, and touch;

* and life is a transformation-machine in the vast workshop of the universe which continuously cleanses everywhere, purifies, allows progress, and illuminates. And living bodies, the dwellings of life, are guest-houses, schools, barracks for instructing and illuminating the caravans of particles, enabling them to perform their duties. Quite simply the EverLiving Self-Subsistent One makes subtle this dark, transient, lowly world, illuminates it and gives it a sort of permanence, preparing it to go to another, everlasting world;


* and life's two faces, that is, its inner and outer faces, are both shining, elevated, and without dirt or defect. It is an exceptional creature on which apparent causes have not been placed, veiling the disposal of power, in order to show clearly that it has emerged directly without veil or means from the hand of dominical power;


* and the reality of life looks to the six pillars of belief, proving them in meaning and indirectly. That is to say, it is a luminous truth which looks to and proves

* both the necessary existence of the Necessarily Existent One and His eternal life,

* and the realm of the Hereafter and everlasting life,

* and the existence of the angels,

* and the other pillars of belief.

* Also, just as life is the purest essence of the universe, distilled from all of it, so is it a mighty mystery yielding thanks, worship, praise, and love, the most important Divine purposes in the universe and most important results of the world's creation.


So consider these twenty-nine significant, valuable characteristics of life, and elevated, general duties. Then look and see the tremendousness of the Name of Ever-Living behind the Name of Giver of Life. Understand too how with these immense characteristics and fruits of life, the Name of Ever-Living is a Greatest Name.


Also understand that since life is the greatect result of the universe, and its greatest aim and most valuable fruit, life too must have a great aim and result as vast as the universe. For like the tree's result is its fruit, the fruit's result, too, by means of the seed, is a future tree. Yes, just as the aim and result of this life is eternal life, one of its fruits too is thanks to the Ever-Living Giver of Life and worship and praise of Him and love for Him. And just as this thanks, love, praise and worship are the fruit of life, so are they the aim of the universe.


Understand also from this, with what ugly ignorance and denial, indeed, unbelief, those who say that the purpose of life is "to live comfortably, enjoy oneself heedlessly, and indulge oneself in pleasure" denigrate and insult the most valuable bounty of life, gift of consciousness, and bounty of reason, and what ghastly ingratitude they display.




To explain all the degrees, attributes, and duties of life-which is a maximum manifestation of the Names of Ever-Living and Giver of Life-mentioned in the index in the First Sign, one would have to write treatises to the number of those attributes. So since some of them have been elucidated in various parts of the Risale-i Nur, we refer you to them for some of the details, and here point out only a few.


Thus, it was said in the twenty-third of the twenty-nine properties of life, that since life's two faces are transparent and unsullied, apparent causes have not been made a veil to the disposals of dominical power.


Yes, the meaning of this property is as follows: for sure in everything in the universe there is good and beauty, while evil and ugliness are very minor, with the function of being units of measurement and to show the degrees of good and beauty and to augment and multiply their realities. In this way the evil becomes good and the ugliness, beauty. But so that the complaints and anger arising from what are to the superficial view of conscious beings apparently ugliness, badness, disasters, and calamities should not be directed to the Ever-Living and Self-Subsistent One, and so that the contact of sacred, pure Divine power with apparently vile and filthy things should not offend the dignity of power, apparent causes have been made a veil to those disposals of power. The causes cannot create, but have been placed in order to be the target of unjust complaints and objections and to preserve the dignity, sacredness, and unblemished nature of Divine power.


As is explained in the Introduction of the Second Station of the Twenty-Second Word, Azra'il (Upon whom be peace) supplicated Almighty God concerning his duty of seizing the spirits of the dying. He said: "Your servants will be angry with me." It was said to him in reply:


"I shall place the veil of illness and calamity between your duty and the dying, then they shall fling their arrows of complaint and objection, not at you, but at those veils."


According to the meaning of this supplication, Azra'il's (Upon whom be peace) duty is a veil in the same way that other causes are apparent veils, so that the anger and complaints of those who do not see the true, beautiful face of death-beautiful for the people of belief and do not know the manifestation of mercy on it, are not directed to the Ever-Living and Self-Subsistent One, Yes, dignity and grandeur require that causes are curtain-holders to the Hand of Power in the mind's view, while Divine Unity and Glory demand that causes draw bark their hands from the true effect.


However, since both the external and the inward, and the outer and inner faces of life are without dirt, defect, or fault, there is nothing to invite complaints and objections, as there is no filth or ugliness contrary to the dignity and sacredness of power. These faces of life, therefore, have been surrendered directly, without veil, to the hand of the "life giving, restoring, resurrecting" Name of the Ever-Living Self-Subsistent One. Light is the same, and so are existence and the giving of existence. For this reason, creation and the giving of existence look directly without veil to the power of the All-Glorious One. Even, since rain is a sort of life and mercy, the time of its precipitation has not been made subject to a regular law, so that at a11 times of need hands will be raised to the Divine Court to seek mercy. If like the rising of the sun, rain had been subject to a law, that vital bounty would not have been sought and asked for at times of need.






It was said in the twenty-ninth property of life that just as the result of the universe is life, so are thanks and worship the result of life, the cause and ultimate reason for the universe's creation, and its desired result.


Yes, the Ever-Living Self-Subsistent Maker of the universe certainly wants thanks from living creatures in return for His making Himself known and loved through so many boundless sorts of bounties, and He wants their praise and laudation in return for His precious arts, and for them to respond with worship and obedience to His dominical commands.


And so, in accordance with this mystery of dominicality, it is because thanks and worship are the most important purpose of all sorts of life and therefore of the whole universe that with fervour, intensity, and sweetness the Qur'an of Miraculous Exposition urges thanks and worship. It states repeatedly, "Worship is for God alone, thanks is due only to Him, and praise is particular to Him." It is in order to state that thanks and praise should go directly to its True Owner that verses like,


It is He Who gives life and death, and to Him (is due) the alternation of night day. * It is He Who gives life and death; and when He decides upon an affair, He says to it: "Be!", and it is. * And gives life to the earth after its death,


point out that He holds life together with all its attributes, without veil, in the grasp of His power, and reject intermediaries explicitly, and ascribe life directly to the Ever-Living and Self-Subsistent One's hand of power, restricting it to Him.The verses,


For God is He Who gives (all) sustenance-Lord of Power


Steadfast for ever. * And when I am ill, it is He Who cures me. * He is the One that sends down rain (even) after (men) have given up all hope,


show that things which are the means of thanks after life like sustenance, healing and rain, which invite gratitude and thanks and stimulate a feeling of love and praise, also pertain directly to the Healing Provider, and that causes and intermediaries are a veil; that is, that sustenance, healing, and rain are particular and restricted to the power of the Ever-Living and Self- Subsistent One. To express that they come directly from Him without veil, in accordance with the rules of grammar the restrictive pronoun,


"For God is He Who" [Hu ar-Razzaq] and "He is the One that" [Hu aladhi] has been used. The one who gives medicines their properties and creates their effects, is the True Healer alone.






It was explained concerning the twenty-eighth property of life, that life looks to the six pillars of belief and proves them; it points to their truth.


Yes, since the most important result and fruit of the universe, and the purpose of its creation, is life, certainly .that elevated reality is not restricted to this fleeting, brief, deficient, painful worldly life. The aim and result of the tree of life, the immensity of which is understood through its twenty-nine properties, is rather eternal life and the life of the Hereafter; it is life in the realm of bliss, the very stones, trees, and earth of which are alive. For conscious beings and especially for man, the tree of life, decked out with this many significant members, would otherwise remain without fruit, benefit, purpose, and reality. Then man, whose capital and faculties are twenty times greater and more numerous than that of a sparrow and is the most exalted and important creature in the universe, and the highest living being, would fall lower than a sparrow in respect of the happiness of life, and become the most unhappy, the most debased of wretches.


Furthermore, through dwelling on the pains of the past and fears of the future, the intelligence, the most precious of bounties, would continuously wound the human heart; because it mixes nine pains with a single pleasure, it would become the most calamitous affliction. This is false to the hundredth degree. That is to say, the life of this world proves decisively the pillar of belief in the Hereafter and in the spring, lays before our eyes more than three hundred thousand examples of the resurrection of the dead.


Is it at all possible that the All-Powerful Disposer of Affairs, Who prepares with wisdom, grace, and mercy in your garden and country all the things and members necessary for your life; Who makes them reach you at the appropriate time; Who knows and hears even the tiny, particular prayer for food offered by your stomach through its desire for continued existence; and gratifies the stomach, showing through innumerable delicious foods that He accepts its prayer-is it at all possible He does not see you and know you; would not prepare everything necessary for eternal life, mankind's greatest goal; and would not accept mankind's most urgent, important, universal prayer for immortality, of which it is worthy, through constructing the Hereafter and creating Paradise; that He would not hear the most powerful, general prayer, which rings out from the ground to the Divine Throne, of man, the ruler and result of the earth, and hold him as important as a stomach, would not gratify him, so make him deny His perfect wisdom and endless mercy? God forbid, a hundred thousand times!


And is it at all possible that He should hear the most secret voice of the tiniest particular of life, heed its plaint, supply its cure, answer its want, nourish it with' perfect care and solicitude, cause others to serve it attentively, and make His large creatures assist it; then not hear the thunderous voice of the largest and most valuable, immortal, most delicate life? And not take into consideration its powerful plea and prayer for immortality? That He should equip and superintend a common soldier ' with the greatest care and disregard a magnificent, obedient army? That He should see an atom and not see the sun? That He should hear the buzzing of a mosquito and not hear the roar of thunder? God forbid! A hundred thousand times, God forbid!


And could the reason in any way accept that an All-Powerful and AllWise One Who is infinitely merciful, loving, and compassionate, Who greatly loves His own art, makes Himself much loved, and loves greatly those who love Him, would condemn to everlasting death the life that loves Himself more than anything, is lovable and loved and by nature loves its Maker, condemn to death the spirit, the essence and substance of life; would He offend and make angry with Himself for al) eternity that beloved friend of His, and wounding him in terrible fashion deny the mystery of His mercy and light of His love, and make him deny it? A hundred thousand times, God forbid! The absolute beauty which adorns the universe with its manifestation, the absolute mercy which makes happy all creatures, is most certainly exempt from such infinite ugliness, far elevated above such absolute tyranny, such unkindness.


Conclusion : Since there is life in this world, those who understand the secret of life and do not misuse their lives will manifest eternal life in the realm of eternity and everlasting Paradise. In this we believe!


Shining objects on the face of the earth glistening with the sun's reflection, and bubbles on the surface of the sea sparkling and dying away with flashes of light and the bubbles that follow on after them again acting as mirrors to the imaginary miniature suns, self-evidently show that those flashes are the reflections and manifestations of a single, elevated sun. They recall the sun's existence with various tongues, and point to it with their fingers of light.


In just the same way, through the greatest manifestation of the EverLiving and Self-Subsistent One's Name of Giver of Life, the living creatures on the earth and in the sea shine through Divine power, and in order to make way for those that follow after them, utter "O Living One!" and vanish behind the veil of the Unseen, thus indicating and testifying to the life and necessary existence of the Ever-Living and Self-Subsistent One, Who possesses eternal life.


So too, all the evidences testifying to Divine knowledge, the effect of which is apparent in the ordering of all creatures; and all the proofs demonstrating the power which has disposal over the universe; and all the evidences proving the will and volition which governs and directs the universe; and all the signs and miracles proving the missions of the prophets, the channels of Divine revelation and dominical speech; and all the evidences attesting to the seven Divine attributes-all these unanimously indicate, denote, and testify to the life of the Ever-Living and SelfSubsistent One.


For if a thing has sight, it also has life; and if it has hearing, that is a sign of life; and if it has speech, it points to the existence of life; and if it has will and choice, it shows life. Thus, attributes like absolute power, comprehensive will, and all-embracing knowledge, the existence of which is clear and certain due to their works and effects in the universe, testify, through all their evidences, to the life and necessary existence of the Ever-Living and Self-Subsistent One, the eternal life which illuminates the whole universe with a single of its shadows, and, through a single of its manifestations gives life to the realm of the Hereafter, even its very particles.


Life looks also to the pillar of `belief in the angels,' and proves it indirectly. For since the most important result of the universe is life; and it is living beings which are most widely spread, and because of their value, their copies are most duplicated, and who populate the guest-house of the earth with their travelling caravans; and since the globe of the earth has been filled with this many living creatures, and for the purpose of renewing and multiplying the animate species is continuously emptied and refilled; and since life is created on it in even rotting and corrupt matter and it has become a mass of micro-organisms; and since consciousness and intelligence, the purest distilled essence of life, and spirit, its most subtle and stable substance, are created in great profusion on the earth, and quite simply the earth has been infused with life through life, intelligence, consciousness, and spirits, and inhabited in that way; since this is so, surely the heavenly bodies, which are subtler, more luminous, larger and more important than the earth, could not be dead, inanimate, lacking life and consciousness; it would be beyond the bounds of possibility. That is to say, in accordance with the mystery of life, there will surely be living, conscious inhabitants of the skies, the suns, and the stars suitable to the heavens, who will endow them with their living state, demonstrate the ` result of the creation of the heavens, and receive the Divine addresses; and they are the angels.


The essential nature of life also looks to the pillar of `belief in the prophets,' and proves it indirectly. Yes, since the universe was created for life, and life is a greatest manifestation of the Pre-Eternal Self-Subsistent One, a perfect inscription of His, a most beautiful work of His art; and since the Eternal Life shows Itself through the sending of prophets and revealing of scriptures, for if there were no Books or prophets, that PreEternal Life would not be known just as it is through his speech that it is understood that a person is alive, so too it is prophets and the scriptures they bring that make known the words and speech of the One Who speaks from beyond the World of the Unseen, beneath the veil of the universe, Who commands and prohibits and utters His address-then certainly just as the life in the universe testifies decisively to the necessary existence of the Pre-Eternal Ever-Living One, it looks also to the pillars of belief the `sending of prophets' and `revelation of scriptures,' which are the rays, manifestations, and communications of that Pre-Eternal Life. And since the Prophethood of Muhammed (PBUH) and the Qur'anic revelation are like the spirit and intelligence of life, it may be said that their truth is as certain as the existence of life.


Yes, just as life is the distilled essence of the universe; and consciousness and sense perception are distilled from life and are the essence of life; and intelligence too is distilled from consciousness and sense perception and is the essence of consciousness; and spirit is the pure, unsullied substance of life, its stable and autonomous essence; so too, the physical and spiritual life of Muhammed·(PBUH) is the distilled quintessence of the universe; and the Prophethood of Muhammed (PBUH) is the very purest essence distilled from the senses, consciousness, and intelligence of the universe. Indeed, the physical and spiritual life of Muhammed (PBUH), is, through the testimony of its works, the very life of the life of the universe. And the Prophethood of Muhammed (PBUH) is the consciousness and light of the universe's consciousness. While the Qur'anic revelation, according to the testimony of its living truths, is the spirit of the universe's life and the intelligence of its consciousness.


Yes, yes, yes! If the light of the Prophethood of Muhammed (PBUH) was to depart from the universe, the universe would die. If the Qur'an was to depart, the universe would go mad, the earth would lose its head and its reason; it would even strike its now unconscious head on a planet and Doomsday would occur.


Life also looks to the pillar of `belief in Divine Determining,' and proves it indirectly. Because, since life is the light of the Manifest World, and it dominates it, and is the result and aim of existence, and since it is the most comprehensive mirror of the Creator of the universe and the most perfect sample and index of dominical activity, and-let there be no mistake in the comparison-is like a sort of programme, for sure, the mystery of life necessitates that the creatures in the World of the Unseen, that is, the past and the future, that is, that have been and will come, are predisposed to conform to order, regularity, being known and observed, specific individual existence, and the creative commands, which are their lives in one respect.


The original seed of a tree and its root, as well as the seeds contained in its fruit and final outcome, all manifest a sort of life no less than the tree itself; indeed, they bear within themselves laws of life more subtle than those of the tree. Similarly, the seeds and roots left by last autumn, before the present spring, as well as the seeds and roots that will be left to subsequent springs after this spring has departed-they all bear the manifestations of life, just like this spring, and are subject to the laws of life. In just the same way, all the branches and twigs of the cosmic tree each have a past and a future. They have a chain consisting of past and future stages and circumstances. The multiple existences and stages of each species and each member of each species, existing in Divine knowledge, forms a chain of being in God's knowledge, and like its external existence, its existence in God's knowledge is a manifestation of universal life that draws all the aspects of its life from these meaningful and vital Tablets of Divine Determining.


The fact that the World of Spirits-which is one form of the World of the Unseen-is full of the essence of life, the matter of life, and the spirits, which are the substances and essence of life, of a certainty demands and requires that the past and future-which are another form of the World of the Unseen and its second segment-should also receive the manifestation of life.


In addition, the perfect order, the meaningful circumstances and vital fruits and stages inherent in the existence of a thing within God s knowledge, also demonstrate the manifestation of a sort of life. Such a manifestation of life, which is the light emitted by the sun of eternal life, cannot be limited to this Manifest World, this present time, this external existence. On the contrary, each world receives the manifestation of that light in accordance with its capacity, and the cosmos together with all its worlds is alive and illumined through it. Otherwise, as the misguided imagine, beneath a temporary and apparent life, each world would be a vast and terrible corpse, a dark ruin.


One broad aspect of the pillar of `belief in Divine Determining and Decree' is, then, understood through the mystery of life and is established by it. Just as the life and vitality of the Manifest World and existent, visible objects become apparent from their orderliness and the consequences of their existence, so too past and future creatures-regarded as belonging to the World of the Unseen-have an immaterial existence and sort of life, and a spiritual presence. in God s knowledge. The trace of this life and presence is made manifest and known by means of the Tablet of Divine Determining and Decree and through all the stages and circumstances of their external lives and existences.






Also, it was said concerning the sixteenth property of life that when life enters a thing, it makes it like a world; if a part, it affords it the comprehensiveness of a whole; if a particular, the extensiveness of a universal.


Yes, life possesses such extensiveness it is simply a comprehensive mirror of Divine Oneness, showing in itself most of the Divine Names manifested throughout the universe. When life enters a body, it makes it a small world; like a sort of seed of the tree of the universe, containing an index of it. In the same way that a seed can only be the work of a power capable of making the tree that bears it, the one who creates the tiniest living beings has to be the Creator of all the universe.


Thus, through this comprehensiveness, life demonstrates in itself a most obscure mystery of Divine Oneness. That is, like the mighty sun is present through its light, reflection, and seven colours in every drop of water and fragment of glass facing it, so the Divine Names and attributes which encompass the universe are manifested together in all living beings. From this point of view, in regard to creation and dominicality, life makes the universe into an indivisible whole, a universal whose being broken into parts and in which others can share is outside the bounds of possibility.


Yes, the stamp on your face shows self-evidently that the One Who creates you is the One Who creates all human kind. For the nature of man's creation is the same; it cannot be split up. Also, by means of life the parts of the universe are like the individual members of mankind, and the universe, like the species. It shows the seal of Divine Oneness and stamp of Eternal Besoughtedness on every individual the same as it shows them on the whole, thus in every way repulsing the associating of partners with God.


Also, there are such extraordinarily wondrous miracles of dominical art in life that one, a power, that cannot create the whole universe cannot create the tiniest animate creature. Yes, a pen that inscribes in a tiny seed the index of the huge pine-tree, and the programme of its life, like writing the whole Qur'an in a chickpea, can surely be none other than the pen that writes the heavens together with the stars. And the one who places in the tiny head of a bee the ability and faculties to know the flowers in the garden of the universe, be connected with most of its realms, convey a gift of Divine mercy like honey, and know on the day it comes into the world the conditions of life, can surely be none other than the Creator of the entire universe.


I n S h o r t : Life is a shining seal of Divine Unity on the face of the universe; and in respect of life all beings endowed with spirits are stamps of Divine Oneness; and the embroideries and art in every living being form a seal of Eternal Besoughtedness; and living creatures set their signatures with their lives on the missive of the universe in the name of the Ever-Living and Self-Subsistent One to their number, and are seals of Divine Unity, stamps of Divine Oneness, and signets of Divine Eternal Besoughtedness. Similarly, just as all living beings are seals of Divine Unity in this book of the universe, like life, so too a seal of Divine Oneness has been placed of the faces and features of each.


Furthermore, just as life forms signatures and seals testifying to the Unity of the Ever-Living and Self-Subsistent One to the number of its particulars and of animate beings, the act of raising and restoring to life also sets signatures to Divine Unity to the number of beings. For example, the raising to life of the earth, which is a single individual, testifies to Divine Unity as brilliantly as the sun. For in the raising to life of the earth in spring, three hundred thousand species and the species' innumerable individual members are restored to life one within the other, without fault or defect, in perfect, regular order. The one who performs a single act such as that together with innumerable other orderly acts must surely be the Creator of all beings and the Ever-Living and Self Subsistent One, and the Single One of Unity any partnership in Whose dominicality is impossible.


For now, this small number of life's properties has been described briefly, and we refer the explanation and detailed discussion of its other properties to the Risale-i Nur and to another time.






The Greatest Name is not the same for everyone; it differs. For example, for Imam Ali (May God be pleased with him) it was the six Names of Single, Ever-Living, Self-Subsistent, Sapient, All-Just, and Most Holy. For Imam al-A'zam, it was two Names; Sapient and All-Just. While for Ghawth al-A'zam it was Ever-Living. For Imam-i Rabbani, the Greatest Name was Self-Subsistent, and so on; many other people considered the Greatest Name to be different Names.


In connection with this Fifth Point being about the Name of EverLiving, as both a blessing, and a witness, and an evidence, and as a sacred proof, and as a prayer for ourselves, and as good close to this treatise, we include the following, uttered by the Most Noble Prophet (Peace and blessings be upon him) in a supreme supplication called Jawshan alKabir, which shows the extremely elevated and comprehensive degree of his knowledge of God. We shall travel in the imagination to that time, and saying "Amen" to what the Noble Prophet (Peace and blessings be upon him) said, shall utter the same supplication with the voice of Muhammed (Blessings and peace be upon him) as though saying it ourselves:


O You Who was living before all living beings;


O You Who shall live after all living beings;


O Living One whom no living being resembles;


O Living One Whom nothing is like;


O Living One Who needs no other living being;


O Living One Who takes no other living being as His partner; O Living One Who causes all living beings to die;


O Living One Who provides the sustenance of all living beings; O Living One Who restores to life the dead;


Living One Whom death touches not—


Glory be unto You! There is no god but You! Mercy! Mercy! Deliver us from the Fire! Amen!




Glory be unto You! We have no knowledge. save that which You have taught us; indeed, You are All-Knowing, All-Wise.




* * *










The Divine Name of Self-Subsistent




[This Point considers the Divine Name of Self-Subsistent. It is a summary of the Fifth Point concerning the Name of Ever-Living, an addendum to the Source of Light, and is also considered appropriate to be the Addendum to the Thirtieth Word.)




An Apology


Both since these very important matters concerning the profound and comprehensive greatest manifestation of the Name of Self-Subsistent occurred to me as separate flashes and are therefore not well-arranged, and also since they have remained in the form of an extremely ill-arranged, speedily written uncorrected rough copy, many deficiencies and much disorderliness are bound to be apparent in the phraseology and manner of expression. You must forgive my defects for the sake of the beauties of the matters discussed.




A Reminder


The points concerning the Greatest Name are comprehensive to the utmost degree and also extremely profound, especially the matters concerned with the Name of Self-Subsistent, as are those of the First Ray in particular. Furthermore since these latter look to the Materialists and have penetrated the subject to an even greater degree everyone will not be able to understand every matter in all its aspects. However, everyone will be able to grasp a part of each matter to some extent. According to the rule of `Even if a thing is not wholly obtained, it still should be abandoned completely,' it is not reasonable to leave aside such a matter alto&127; gether, saying: "I cannot pick all the fruits in this immaterial garden.' However many fruits a person can pick, that amount will be of benefit. For just as the matters connected with the Greatest Name are extensive to the degree they cannot be comprehended, so are they also subtle to the degree the mind cannot distinguish them. Everyone's mind may not reach the Fifth and Sixth Points concerning the Names of Ever-Living and Self-Subsistent, and in particular the allusions of life to the pillars of belief and particularly to the pillar of Divine Determining and Decree in the Fifth Point, but they will not remain without some share of them and in any event these matters will strengthen their belief. The importance of strengthening belief, which is the key to eternal happiness, is truly tremendous. Even an iota's increase in belief is a treasure. Imam-i Rabbani,




Ahmad al-Faruqi, said: "In my view, increase in only a small aspect of belief is preferable to experiencing hundreds of illuminations and spiritual delights."




* * *


In the Name of God, the Merciful, the Compassionate. In Whose hand is the dominion of' all things. * To Him belong the keys of the heavens and the earth. * And there is nothing but with Us are its treasuries. * There is not a moving creature but He has grasp of its forelock.


A point. concerning verses like these which allude to Divine Self-Subsistence, a greatest manifestation of the Name of Self-Subsistent, which is either the Greatest Name, or the second of the two lights of the Greatest Name, or the sixth of its six lights, was imparted to my mind during the month of Dhi'1-Qa'da. My situation in Eskisehir Prison does not allow me to explain fully that Greatest Light. However, Imam Ali (May God be pleased with him) expounded the Greatest Name in his ode Arjuza under the exalted name of Sakina, and in his ode Jaljalutiyya he considered together with some other sublime Names these six Names contained within the Greatest Name stating them to be the greatest and most important. Moreover, I have received extraordinary consolation from his discussion of them. And so, as we have with the preceding five Names, we shall allude to the Name of Self-Subsistent, to that Greatest Light, with Five Rays in what is at the very least an abbreviated form.






The Glorious Creator of the universe is Self-Subsistent, that is, He subsists, continues, endures of Himself. All things subsist and continue through Him, they remain in existence and have permanence. If that relationship of Self-Subsistence was cut off from the universe for even the fraction of a second, the universe would be annihilated.


Furthermore, as the Qur'an of Mighty Stature decrees, together with the All-Glorious One's Self-Subsistence


There is nothing that is like unto Him.


That is, neither in His essence, nor in His attributes, nor in his actions has He like, equal, peer, or partner. Indeed, for a Most and Holy One Who takes the universe with its circumstances and functions in the grasp of His dominicality and Who regulates, administers, sustains and nurtures it with perfect order as though it was a house or a palace to have any like, equal, partner, or peer is not possible; it is impossible.


For sure, One for Whom the creation of the stars is as easy as that of particles, and to Whose power is subjugated the greatest thing in the same way that the most minute is subjugated, and for Whom nothing is an obstacle to any other thing and no action an obstacle to any other action, and in Whose view innumerable individuals are present in the same way that a single individual is present, and Who hears all voices simultaneously and is able to answer the limitless needs of all simultaneously, and outside the sphere of Whose will and volition is nothing, no state, as is testified to by all the order and balance that is present in the beings in the universe, and although He is in no place, through Whose power and knowledge is present everywhere, and although everything is utterly distant from Him, is able to be utterly close to all things-such an AllGlorious Ever-Living and Self-Subsistent One most certainly can in no way have any like, equal, partner, deputy, opposite or peer; it would be impossible. His sacred qualities and attributes can only be considered through allegory and comparison. All the comparisons and allegories in the Risale-i Nur are of this sort of comparison and parable.


Thus, the Most Pure and Holy One is without like, Necessarily Existent, utterly remote from matter, and beyond space; His fragmentation and division is impossible in every respect as is any sort of change or alteration; His being needy or impotent is beyond the bounds of possibility. And yet, a group of the people of misguidance suppose certain manifestations of the Most Pure and Holy Essence which are manifested in the pages of the universe and in the levels of beings to be the Most Pure and Holy One Himself and ascribe the decrees of the Divinity to certain creatures; they attribute some of the All-Glorious One's works to Nature.


However, it is demonstated with conclusive proofs in numerous places in the Risale-i Nur that Nature is a Divine art, it cannot be the artist. It is a dominical book, and cannot be the scribe. It is an embroidery, and cannot be the embroiderer. It is a register, and cannot be the accountant. It is a law, and cannot be the power. It is a pattern, and cannot be the source. It is a recipient and is passive, and cannot be the author. It is an order, and cannot the orderer. It is a code of creation, and cannot be the establisher of the code.


If, to suppose the impossible, the tiniest animate creature was referred to Nature and it was told: "You made this," as is demonstrated in many places in the Risale-i Nur with decisive proofs, it would then be necessary to provide moulds, or rather machines, to the number of the tiny creature's members and bodily systems so that Nature could carry out the work.


Moreover, although a group of the people of misguidance called Materialists perceived a greatest manifestation of Divine creativity and dominical power within the orderly transformations of minute particles, since they did not know from where the manifestation came and could not understand from where that universal force was being directed, which originated from the manifestation of the Eternally Besought One's power, supposing matter and force to be pre-eternal, they began to attribute the Divine works to particles and their motion. Glory be to God! Is it possible for human beings to be so ignorant that they attribute the actions and works that can only be carried out by One Who is both beyond space and also present in such a way as to see, know, and direct all things in the creation of all things everywhere, to particles and their motion, which are tossed around in the storms of lifeless, blind, unconscious chance that lacks will and balance? Those who possess even a jot of intelligence must see just what an ignorant and superstitious idea this is.


Indeed, because these wretches have abandoned absolute unity, they have fallen into a limitless and endless absolute multiplicity. That is, since they do not accept one single God, they are compelled to accept endless gods. Which means, since they are unable to squeeze into their corrupted minds the idea of one single Most Pure and Holy Essence and the pre-eternity and creativity that are necessary and essential to Him, they are compelled by their opinions to accept the pre-eternity, indeed the divinity, of those limitless, endless, lifeless particles.


So, come and consider this complete and utter ignorance! For certainly, the manifestation on particles has made that mass of particles into an orderly and magnificent army through the strength, power, and command of the Necessarily Existent One. If the Commander-in-Chief's command and power were withdrawn even for a second, that numerous, lifeless, unconscious mass would become like irregular soldiers, it would altogether cease to exist.


Furthermore, it is as if another group of people see even further, that is, they are even more ignorantly misguided. They imagine the matter known as ether, which is an extremely subtle, fine, obedient and subjugated page of the Glorious Maker's activities, a means for the transmitting of His commands, a flimsy veil for the exercise of His power, a refined ink for His writing, a most fine raiment for His creating, a leaven of His artefacts and a tillage for His seeds, to be the origin and the author because it acts as a mirror to the manifestation of His dominicality


This extraordinary ignorance requires endless impossibilities because ether is matter that is unconscious, lifeless and without will and is finer than the matter of which particles consist, which drowns the Materialists, and is denser than the index of primordial matter into which the ancient philosophers thrust themselves. To attribute to this matter, which may be fragmented and divided without limit and is equipped with the qualities and duties of being passive and the ability to transmit-to attribute to its minute particles, which are far minuter than particles of other matter, the actions and works which exist through a will and power that sees, knows, and directs all things in all things is mistaken to the number of particles of ether.


The act of creation apparent in beings is such that it demonstrates it proceeds from a power and will which sees and knows most things, the whole universe even, in each thing particularly if it is animate, and which recognizes and secures the animate creature's relationship with the universe; it thus demonstrates that it cannot be the act of causes, which are material and are not all-encompassing. Through the meaning of SelfSubsistence, a particular creative act bears a mighty meaning that points to its being directly the. act of the Creator of the whole universe. For example, an act pertaining to the creation of a bee demonstrates that it is peculiar to the Creator of the universe in two respects.


First Respect: The fact that all the other bees throughout the world resembling that particular bee manifest the same act at the same time demonstrates that the particular and individual act is the tip of a comprehensive act which embraces the face of the earth. In which case, whoever is the author and owner of that vast act must also be the author of the particular act.


Second Respect: In order to be the author of the action directed towards the creation of the bee in question, a power and will is necessary that will be vast enough to know and secure the conditions for the life of the bee, and its members, and its relationship with the universe. Therefore, the one who performs the particular action will only be able to perform it thus perfectly through having authority over most of the universe.


Thus, the most particular and insignificant action demonstrates in two respects that it is peculiar to the Creator of all things.


The most remarkable and surprising thing is this: the Necessarily Existent One possesses `necessity,' which is the firmest level of existence, `absolute isolation from matter,' which is the most immutable degree of existence; `absolute freedom from space,' which is the state of existence furthest from cessation; and `un5ty,' which is the soundest quality of existence and the one remotest from change and non-existence. And yet they attribute pre-eternity and everlastingness, which are the Necessarily Existent One's most particular qualities and are necessary and essential to Him, to things like ether and particles, which are matter that is material unbounded and numerous, is the least stable level of existence and the least tangible, the most changing and the most varying and the most dispersed through space; they ascribe pre-eternity to them and fancy them to be pre-eternal; and some of them even suppose that it is out of them that the Divine works arise. It has been demonstrated through cogent arguments in numerous places in the Risale-i Nur how contrary to truth and reality, how unreasonable and absurd, is this idea.




This consists of two Matters. First Matter:




Neither sleep overcomes Him nor slumber. * There is not a moving creature but He has grasp of its forelock. * To Him belong the keys of the heavens and the earth.`


These verses point to a greatest manifestation of the name of Self-Subsistent. One aspect of the mighty truth that these and verses like them indicate is as follows:


The existence, continuance, and perpetuation of the heavenly bodies in the universe are tied to the mystery of Self-Subsistence. If the manifestation of Self-Subsistence was to avert its face for a moment, millions of globes, some of them a thousand times larger than the globe of the earth, would be scattered into the infinite void of space, and colliding with one another would crash into nothingness.


For example, the power of the Self-Subsistence of the One Who keeps thousands of stately palaces in place in perfect order and makes them travel like aircraft through space is measured through the stability, order, and continuance of those palaces in space. So too the facts that the All-Glorious and Self-Subsistent One bestows on the innumerable heavenly bodies within ethereal matter a stability, permanence, and continuance within the utmost order and balance through the mystery of Self-Subsistence; and together with upholding without prop or support in the void millions of mighty globes, some a thousand and some even a million times larger than the earth, entrusts them all with duties and causes them to submit in perfect obedience like a majestic army to the decrees proceeding from `the command of "Be!" and it is' are a measure of the greatest manifestation of the Name of Self-Subsistent. In the same way, the particles of all beings also exist, like the stars, through the mystery of Self-Subsistence, and are permanent and continue through it.


The particles in the body of an animate creature do not disperse but are assembled in groups and systems peculiar to each limb, and without scattering, preserve their position within the storms of the elements, which flow like floods, and remain regular and in order. Since this self-evidently does not occur through themselves but through the mystery of Self-Subsistence, and since each body is like a well-ordered regiment and each species like a regular army, these particles proclaim the mystery of Self-Subsistence with innumerable tongues in the same way that the continuance and motion of all animate creatures and their assemblages on the earth and that of the stars in the world of space proclaim it.


S e c o n d M a t t e r : This station requires that some of the benefits and instances of wisdom in things connected with the mystery of Self-Subsistence are pointed out.


The wisdom in the existence of all things, and the aims of their natures, the benefits in their creation, and the results of their lives are of three sorts.


The First Sort looks to each thing itself and to man and to man's affairs.




The Second Sort is more important. It is the setting forth to innumerable readers the meanings of all things, each of which is like a sign, a missive, a book, an ode for conscious beings to study, a sign making known the manifestation of the Glorious Creator's Names.


The Third Sort: This concerns the Glorious Maker and looks to Him. While the benefits and results of everything that look to the things themselves are one, those looking to the Glorious Maker are myriad. For the Glorious Maker beholds the wonders of His art Himself, He observes the manifestation of His Names in beings which He Himself has fashioned. As far as this mighty third sort is concerned, for the things to live even for a second is sufficient.


There is also a mystery of Self-Subsistence requiring the existence of all things which will be explained in the Third Ray.


At one time I was investigating the talisman of the universe and the riddle of creation, which lies in its being a manifestation, together with the instances of wisdom and benefits in beings, and I said: "I wonder why these things display themselves in this way and then swiftly vanish and are lost? I look at their individual features; they have been attired, decked out and adorned in an orderly, purposeful fashion and sent to this display and exhibition. But then they disappear within one or two days, and some of them within a few minutes; uselessly and in vain they vanish. What is the purpose in their being seen by us for this short time?" I was most curious.


Then, through Divine favour, I discovered one important instance of wisdom in the fact that beings, and in particular animate beings, come to the place of instruction that is this world. It was as follows: each being, and especially if it is animate, is an extremely meaningful word, missive, dominical ode and Divine proclamation. After it has been studied by all conscious beings and has stated its meaning to innumerable readers, its corporeal form, which is like a letter or a word, disappears.


For about a year this instance of wisdom was sufficient for me. Then the truly wonderful and subtle miracles of art to be found in creatures, and in particular in animate beings, were disclosed. I understood that these subtleties of art which are so fine and wonderful are not only to set forth meanings for the gazes of conscious beings. For although innumerable conscious creatures may study each being, their studying is both limited, furthermore all of them may be unable to penetrate all the subtleties of art in those animate creatures. That is to say, the most important result of the creation of animate beings and the most significant purpose of their natures is to present to the Pre-Eternal Self-Subsistent One's own gaze the marvels of His art and the compassionate gifts and bounties that He has bestowed.


As for this purpose, it contented me for a long time and from it I understood the following: the wisdom and purpose of creation, which is to present the endless subtleties of art in beings, particularly in animate beings, to the gaze of the Pre-Eternally Self-Subsistent One, that is, for He Himself to behold His own art, was sufficient for that vast outlay.


Some time later I realized that the subtleties of art in the individual features and forms of beings did not continue; they were being renewed and were undergoing change at great speed; they were being transformed within an endless activity and creativity. I started to ponder over it, saying: "The wisdom in this creativity and activity must necessarily be as extensive as the activity itself." Then, the two instances of wisdom mentioned above began to appear insufficient; they lacked something. With extreme curiosity I began to search and seek for a further purpose and instance of wisdom. ·


All praise be to God, through the effulgence of the Qur'an of Miraculous Exposition, after some time a vast and limitless wisdom and purpose became apparent at the level of the mystery of Self-Subsistence. And through it, a Divine mystery called `the talisman of the universe' and `riddle of creation' was understood. Since it is explained in detail in the Twenty-Fourth Letter, here we shall only briefly mention two or three points, in the Third Ray.


Look from this point to the manifestation of the mystery of Self-Subsistence: it has plucked all beings out of non-existence, and according to the meaning of the verse,


It is God Who has raised the heavens without any supports that you can see


has caused each one of them to remain in infinite space. Bestowing on them stability and permanence, it has thus caused them all to display the manifestation of the mystery of Self-Subsistence. If there was not this support, nothing at all could continue to exist of its own accord. Everything would topple over into an infinite void and tumble into nonexistence.


Furthermore, just as all beings rely on the All-Glorious Self-Subsistent One for their existence, stability, and permanence, they continue in existence through Him, so too according to the meaning of the verse




And to Him goes back every affair


the tips of thousands of chains or lines in the states and conditions of beings are fastened to the mystery of Self-Subsistence, which, if the comparison is not mistaken, is like the centre or central pole of telephone and telegraph lines. If they did not rely on that luminous point of support, thousands of unending sequences of causes would be necessary, which according to scholars is an impossible and false notion; in fact, there would have to be as many of these absurd unending sequences of causes as there are beings. For example, one thing (protection or light or existence or sustenance, for instance) in one respect relies on the next thing, and that on the next, and that on the next, until finally since it cannot be infinite, it has to come to an end.


Thus, the end of all such lines and sequences lies in the mystery of Self-Subsistence. But when the mystery of Self-Subsistence has been understood, the links and the meaning of each thing relying on the next in those imaginary squences do not remain, they disappear, and everything is seen to look directly to the mystery of Self-Subsistence.




By means of one or two introductory points, we shall point out to a small degree the disclosure of the mystery of Self-Subsistence within Divine creativity and dominical activity, which verses like the following allude to:


Every day He manifests Himself in yet another way. * A sovereign doer of whatever He wills. * He creates whatever he wishes. * In Whose hand is the dominion of all things. * So look to the .signs of God's mercy, how He restores the earth to life after its death.


T h e F i r s t : When we look at the universe, we see that one group of creatures, which are tossed around in the flood of time and follow on one after the other convoy after convoy, come for a second and then immediately vanish. Another group comes for a minute and then passes on. One species stops by in the Manifest Word for an hour, and then enters the World of the Unseen. Some of them come and alight in the Manifest World for a day, some of them for a year, some for a century, and some for an age; they perform their duties and then depart.


This astonishing travelling and passage of beings and flow and flux of creatures is driven and directed with such order, balance and wisdom, and the one who commands them and those convoys does so with such insight, purpose and planning that even if all minds were to unite and become one mind, it would be unable to comprehend the essence of this wise direction; it would be unable to find any fault in it and so could not criticize it.


Thus, within this dominical activity, not even allowing any of those pleasing creatures that it loves, especially animate creatures, to open their eyes, the pen of Divine Determining and Decree despatches them to the World of the Unseen; not permitting them even to draw a breath, it discharges them from the life of this world. It continuously ills the guesthouse of the world and empties it without the guests' consent. Making the globe of the earth like a slate for writing and erasing, through the manifestation of




He grants life and deals death,


the pen of Divine Determining and Decree ceaselessly inscribes on it writings, and renews and replaces them.


One meaning of the wisdom in this dominical activity and Divine creativity and a fundamental requirement and a motive cause of them is a limitless, endless instance of wisdom that may be divided into three important branches.


The First Branch of that wisdom is this: Every sort of activity, whether particular or universal, yields pleasure. Rather, there is a pleasure in all activity. Indeed, activity is pure pleasure. Or, activity is the manifestation of existence, which is pure pleasure and is the shaking off and becoming distant from non-existence, which is pure suffering.


Everyone with ability follows with pleasure the unfolding of his ability through activity. The revealing of innate talents through activity arises from a pleasure and results in a pleasure. Everyone who possesses some perfections follows with pleasure their disclosure through activity.


Since there is present in every activity a perfection and pleasure which is thus loved and sought after, and activity too is a perfection; and since there are apparent in the world of animate creatures the manifestations of a boundless love and infinite compassion which arise from a perpetual and pre-eternal life; those manifestations show that as the requirement of that eternal Life which is fitting for the Necessary Existence of the One Who thus loves and is compassionate and makes Himself loved, and is worthy of His Holiness, there arc (if the terms are not mistaken) at the utmost level sacred qualities in that Most Pure and Holy Life like Divine passion, hallowed love, and sheer pleasure. And it is these qualities that continuously renew, agitate, and change the universe through endless activity and an infinite creativity.


The Second Branch of the wisdom in the limitless Divine activity which looks to the mystery of Self-Subsistence. This looks to the Divine Names. It is well-known that everyone who possesses beauty wants to both see and display his beauty; that everyone who possesses some skills desires and loves to attract attention to his skills by exhibiting and proclaiming them; he desires and loves his skill, which is a beautiful truth and meaning that has remained concealed, to be revealed and to find ardent admirers.


These fundamental rules are in force in all things according to the degree of each. According to the testimony of the universe and the evidence of the manifestations and embroideries of the thousand and one Most Beautiful Names of the: All-Glorious Self-Subsistent One, Who possesses absolute beauty, there are in every degree of each of those Names a true loveliness, a true perfection, a true beauty and a most exquisite truth. Indeed, in every degree there are endless different sorts of loveliness and innumerable beautiful truths.


Since the mirrors reflecting the sacred beauties of those Names and the tableaux displaying their beautiful embroideries and the pages setting forth their beautiful truths are all the beings of the universe, those constant and eternal Names will entirely and unceasingly renew and change the universe through their manifestations as a consequence of that sacred Divine love and due to the mystery of Self-Subsistence. In this way they will display their endless manifestations and infinite, meaningful embroideries and books both to the witnessing gaze of the All-Glorious Self-Subsistent One, Whom they signify, and to the studying gaze of uncountable numbers of conscious creatures and creatures endowed with spirits, and will display countless tableaux out of a finite and limited thing and numerous individuals out of a single individual and multiple truths out of a single truth.






The Third Branch of the wisdom in the constant and astonishing activity in the universe. Everyone who is compassionate is happy at giving pleasure to others; and everyone who is kind is gratified at making others happy; everyone who is loving is gladdened by pleasing others who are worthy of being pleased; and everyone who is noble-hearted takes pleasure at making others happy; everyone who is just rejoices at upholding justice and at winning the gratitude of those whose rights are vindicated by punishing those who deserve it; and every skilful craftsman takes pride in exhibiting his work, at its functioning as he imagined it would function, and at its giving the desired results.


Thus, each of the above-mentioned principles is a fundamental rule which is in force throughout the universe and the world of mankind. Three examples demonstrating that these rules function in the Divine Names have been explained in the Third Stopping Place of the ThirtySecond Word. Since it is appropriate to write a summary of them at this point we say the following:


For example, an extremely kind, generous, munificent, noble-hearted person who embarks the poor and needy on a large ship, gratifies them with banquets and bounties and sails it in the seas around the world, himself being superior to them, will watch them happily, take pleasure at those needy people's gratitude, rejoice and be pleased dt their taking pleasure, and feel proud.


If one who is merely like a distribution official takes such pleasure and delight at holding an insignificant banquet, then consider the following: the Ever-Living and Self-Subsistent One embarks all animals and men and countless angels, jinn and spirit beings on the ship of the earth, which is a vessel of that All-Merciful One; He spreads the face of the earth before them as a dominical table laden with varieties of foods, and with delights and sustenance for all the senses; he causes those needy, thankful, grateful and happy creatures to sail the regions of the universe, and not only makes them happy in this world with all these bounties, but also makes each of those bounties a table in the unending banquets in the Paradises of the Eternal Realm. It is therefore the meaning of dominicality alluded to by the Divine qualities arising from the thanks, gratitude, joy and delight of those creatures which look to the Ever-Living and SelfSubsistent One, which we are powerless and also not permitted to express, like `holy pleasure,' `sacred pride,' and `hallowed delight' that necessitate this constant activity and ceaseless creativity.


And for example, if a skilful craftsman builds a gramophone which requires no records and it plays just as he wishes, how proud and delighted he will be; he will say to himself: "What wonders God willed!" If an insignificant piece of art in which there is no true creation engenders a feeling of such pride and pleasure in the craftsman's spirit, then consider the following:


The All-Wise Maker creates the totality of the universe as a Divine orchestra and wondrous workshop which strikes up and gives forth countless sorts of songs and hymns praises and glorification; He displays all the species, all the worlds, in the universe through a different craft and different miracles of art; and not only does He fashion many machines in the heads of animate creatures, each like a gramophone, camera or telegraph, but He also fashions in the heads of all human beings, not only a gramophone without records, a camera without a film, a telegraph without wires, but a machine twenty times more wonderful. It is therefore meanings like `sacred pride' and `holy pleasure' and the exalted qualities of this sort which proceed from dominicality and arise from creating such machines, and their functioning in the required way and producing the desired results that necessitate this unceasing activity.


And for example, a just ruler takes pleasure and is gratified and feels proud at taking the part of the oppressed against tyrants in order to uphold justice, at protecting the poor against the wrongdoing of the powerful, and at giving to everyone his due. Since this is a fundamental rule of rulership and justice, then consider the following:


The Ever-Living and Self-Subsistent One, Who is the All-Wise Ruler and is Absolutely Just, bestows on all creatures and especially on animate ones the necessary conditions for life, which are known as `the rights of life;' and in order to preserve their lives, He grants them the necessary abilities and members; and He compassionately protects the weak from the evil of the powerful. Therefore, the dominical qualities and sacred meanings, which we are powerless to express, that arise from this and from the execution of the mystery of justice, which in this world is total with regard to establishing justice for all animate beings and partial with regard to punishing wrongdoers, and especially that arise from the manifestation of supreme justice at the Supreme Tribunal of the Resurrection, necessitate the constant activity in the universe.


Thus, as these three examples show, since each of the. Most Beautiful Names is the means for certain sacred Divine qualities in this unceasing activity, they require unceasing creativity. And since the development, unfolding and blossoming of all abilities and faculties yield a joy, expansiveness and pleasure; and since on the performance and completion of a duty and on being released from it, everyone entrusted with such a duty experiences a great feeling of relief and gratitude; and since to receive many fruits from a single seed and to gain a hundredfold profit from a single thing is a most pleasurable trade, then most certainly the One Who causes the innumerable abilities of all creatures to unfold, after employing all creatures in valuable duties, will discharge them, but to a higher state. That is to say, He raises elements to the level of minerals; minerals to plant life; plants to the level of animal life by means of sustenance; and animals to the high level of human life, which is conscious.


It may be understood then just how important are the sacred meanings and Divine dominicality arising from the constant activity and dominical creativity which, on the demise of their external existences, cause all animate creatures to leave behind them multiple existences taken from them, like their spirits, essences, identities, forms, existences in the Worlds of Similitudes, Knowledge, and the Unseen, the sheaths of their spirits, and the bodies with which to travel around the stars, all of which are charged with duties in their places. This is explained in the Twenty-Fourth Letter.


A Decisive Answer to an Important Question


One group of the people of misguidance say that the One Who changes and transforms the universe with this constant activity must Himself be subject to change and alteration.


T h e A n s w e r : God forbid! A hundred thousand times, God forbid! The fact that mirrors on the ground change demonstrates not that the sun in the sky changes but on the contrary that its manifestations are being renewed. Moreover, change and alteration are impossible in the Most Pure and Holy Essence, Who is pre-eternal, post-eternal, sempiternal, in every respect absolutely perfect and absolutely self-sufficient, totally free of, detached from and beyond matter, space, restriction, and contingency. Change in the universe points not to His changing but to his lack of change and alteration. Because, one who constantly causes change and causes numerous things to move must himself be unchanging and not move.


For example, if you spin a large number of globes and balls which have each been tied to a piece of string and cause them all to move unceasingly within an order, then it is necessary for you to remain in one place and not to change it or move, for if you did move, it would spoil the order. It is clear that one who causes objects to move with order must himself not move, and one who causes objects to change ceaselessly must himself be unchanging so that these actions may continue in an orderly fashion.


Secondly: Change and alteration arise from createdness, from being renewed in order to be perfected, from need, from materiality, and from contingency. Since the Most Pure and Holy Essence is both eternal, and in every respect absolutely perfect and absolutely self-sufficient, and totally detached from matter, and necessarily existent, most certainly His changing and altering is not possible; it is impossible.






First Matter


If we wish to see the greatest manifestation of the Name of Self-Subsistent, we may set up two telescopes in order to observe the whole universe with our imaginations. One of them will show the most distant objects, the other the most minute particles. So, if we look through the first telescope, we see that through the manifestation of the Name of SelfSubsistent and without support, of millions of globes and stars thousands of times larger than the earth, some have been made apparently stationary in the matter known as ether, which is subtler than air, while others have been made to travel apparently as their duty.


Next we look through the second telescope, which is the microscope of the imagination, so that we may see minute particles. Through the mystery of Self-Subsistence, taking up an orderly position like the stars, particles in the bodies of all animate creatures on the earth are in motion and performing their duties. We see that especially the miniscule agglomerations forming the particles known as `red corpuscles' and `white corpuscles' in the blood of animate beings, like the planets, move with two well-ordered motion like Mevlevi dervishes.




A Summary


A summary is appropriate here in order to examine the sacred light the six Names of the Greatest Name form, blending together like the seven colours in light. It is as follows:


Look beyond the greatest manifestation of the Name of Self-Subsistent which thus upholds and gives permanence and continuity to all the beings in the universe: the greatest manifestation of the Name of Ever-Living has set aflame all animate beings with its manifestation. It has illuminated the universe. It gilds all animate beings with its manifestation.


Now look again: beyond the Name of Ever-Living, the greatest manifestation of the Name of Single includes the whole universe with all its elements and parts in a unity. It puts a stamp of Unity on the forehead of each being. It puts a seal of Oneness on each being's face. It causes them to proclaim its manifestation with endless, countless tongues.


And now consider the greatest manifestation of the Name of Sapient beyond the Name of Single: it includes each of the beings we observe through the two telescopes of the imagination, from stars to particles, whether universal or particular, from the greatest sphere to the most minute, in a fruitful order, wise regularity and purposeful harmony appropriate to each. It adorns and gilds all beings.


Then look beyond the greatest manifestation of the Name of Sapient: according to its aspect which was examined in the Second Point, through the greatest manifestation of the Name of All-Just, the whole universe with all its beings is administered with such balance, equilibrium and measure within unceasing activity, that should just one of the heavenly bodies lose its balance even for a second, that is, should it break free of the manifestation of the Name of All-Just, it would cause chaos among the stars, it would be like Doomsday.


Thus, all beings and all the different realms of beings, from the army of the stars to the army of minute particles, that is, from the largest sphere that is the vast belt known as the Milky Way to the sphere of the motion of red and white corpuscles, standing shoulder to shoulder in a manner gauged with the finest balance and measure demonstrates that all those beings are obedient and totally subjugated to the commands proceeding from `the command of "Be!" and it is.'


Now look beyond the greatest manifestation of the Name of All-Just to the greatest manifestation of the Name of Most Holy, which was explained in the First Point: the fact that it renders all the beings in the universe so pure, clean, clear, beautiful, adorned and shining demonstrates that it has bestowed on the universe and on all beings the form of beautiful mirrors worthy of and fitting for reflecting the utter essential beauty of the Absolutely Beautiful One and the sheer loveliness of the Most Beautiful Names.


In Short: These six Names and six lights of the Greatest Name have enwrapped the universe and all beings in ever-differing and various colours, embroideries and adornment.




Second Matter of the Fifth Ray


Just as the manifestation of Self-Subsistence in the universe is at the level of Unity and Glory, so is it in man, who is the centre, pivot, and conscious fruit of the universe, at the level of Oneness and Beauty. That is to say, just as the universe subsists through the mystery of Self-Subsistence, so too does it in one respect subsist through man, who is the most complete place of manifestation of the Name of Self-Subsistent. For, since most of the wisdom, aims, purposes, and benefits in the universe look to man, it is as if the manifestation of Self-Subsistence in him is a support for the universe. Indeed, it may be said that the Ever-Living and Self-Subsistent One willed man to be in the universe and created it for him. For, with the comprehensiveness of his nature, man can understand and take pleasure in all the Divine Names. In particular he can understand many Divine Names through the pleasure to be found in sustenance. Whereas the angels cannot know them through that pleasure.


As a result of this important comprehensiveness of man, the Ever-Living and Self-Subsistent One has given him a stomach and appetite through which He allows him to understand all His Names and to taste all the varieties of His bounty, and He has generously laden the table with endless varieties of foods for man's stomach. He has made life a stomach too, like the physical one, and before the senses, which are like the hands of the stomach of life, has spread a most extensive table of bounties. Through its senses, life offers thanks for each sort of benefit on the table of bounties.


And after the stomach of life, He has bestowed on man the stomach of humanity, which requires sustenance and bounties in a wider sphere than life. Intelligence, mind, and imagination, like the hands of this stomach, benefit from the table of mercy, which is as broad as the heavens and the earth, and give thanks.


And after the stomach of humanity, He has spread before man another table of bounties which is infinitely vast. He has made the beliefs of Islam like an immaterial stomach requiring much sustenance and has extended its table outside the sphere of contingency and included in it the Divine Names. Thus, through this stomach and the greatest pleasure of sustenance, man perceives the Names of All-Merciful and All-Wise and exclaims: "All praise be to God for His mercifulness and His wisdom!" And so on. Man is able to benefit from limitless Divine bounties through this vast immaterial stomach. And there is a further sphere in this stomach, which is the pleasure of Divine love....


Thus, the Ever-Living and Self-Subsistent One has made man a centre and pivot of the whole universe; He has spread before him a table of bounties as broad as the universe, and subjugated the universe to him. The reason for this and for the universe in one respect subsisting through the mystery of Self-Subsistence manifest through man are man's three important duties:




His First Duty


All the varieties of bounties dispersed throughout the universe are put into order through man. All those things beneficial to man are strung like prayer-beads on a string and the ends of the strings of those bounties tied to man's head. Man is thus made like a list of all the varieties of the treasuries of mercy.


His Second Duty


By reason of his comprehensiveness, this is for man to be the most perfect addressee of the Ever-Living and Self Subsistent One; through appreciating and admiring His astonishing arts, to be His loudest herald, and through offering every kind of conscious thanks, to give praise, glory, and thanks for all the varieties of His bounties and the limitless different sorts of His gifts.


His Third Duty


Through his life, it is to act as a mirror to the Ever-Living and Self-Subsistent One and His qualities and all-embracing attributes in three respects.


First Aspect: This is to perceive through his own absolute impotence the absolute power of his Creator and its levels, and through the degrees of his impotence, the degrees of His power. It is to understand through his own absolute poverty, His mercy and the degrees of His mercy, and through his own weakness, His strength; and so on. Through his own defective attributes, it is to be a mirror which is like a measuring instrument to his Creator's attributes of perfection. In the same way that the darkness of the night is a perfect mirror for displaying electric light, the brilliance of the light being in proportion to the darkness of the night, man also acts as a mirror to the Divine perfections through his own defective attributes.


Second Aspect: Using the universe as a yardstick and through his own partial will, tiny knowledge, minute power, and apparent ownership, and through buidling his own house, man understands and acts as a mirror to the ownership, art, will, power, and knowledge of the Fashioner of the universe.


Third Aspect: Man's acting as a mirror in this respect has two faces: First: It is to display in himself the ever-differing embroideries of the Divine Names. To put it simply, by reason of his comprehensiveness, man is like a tiny index and miniature specimen of the universe and so displays the embroideries of all the Names.


Second Face: This face acts as a mirror to the Divine attributes. That is to say, just as man points to the life of the Ever-Living and Self-Subsistent One through his own life, so too does he act as a mirror to and make known the attributes of the Ever-Living and Self-Subsistent One, like hearing and sight; by means of his own sense of hearing and sense of sight that develop during his life-time.


Furthermore, man acts as a mirror to the sacred attributes of the Ever-Living and Self-Subsistent One through the very numerous and responsive senses, meanings, and emotions that are present with his life, which do not develop but which boil up in the form of feelings and emotions. For example, as a result of such emotions, through meanings like loving and feeling proud, pleased, happy and cheerful he acts as mirror to attributes of that sort, on condition that they are suitable and worthy for the sacredness and absolute self-sufficiency of the Most Pure and Holy Essence.


Also, through his comprehensive life, man is an instrument which recognizes and measures the attributes and qualities of the All-Glorious One, and is an index of the manifestation of His Names, and a conscious mirror, and so on, he acts as a mirror to the Ever-Living and Self-Subsistent One in many respects. So too is man a unit of measurement, an index, a scale, and a balance to the truths of the universe.


For example, an extremely decisive evidence of the existence of the Preserved Tablet in the universe and an example of it is the faculty of memory in man. And a decisive evidence of the existence of the World of Similitudes and an example of it is man's faculty of imagination. And an evidence of the existence of spirit beings in the universe and an example of them are the powers and subtle faculties in man. And so on. In a small measure man may display, in a manner that cannot be denied, the truths of belief in the universe.


Thus, man performs many important functions like the duties mentioned above. He is a mirror to enduring beauty. He is the place of manifestation announcing sempiternal perfection. He is one needy and thankful for eternal mercy. Since beauty, perfection, and mercy are everlasting and eternal, it is surely necessary and inevitable that man, who is the desirous mirror to enduring beauty, the enraptured herald of everlasting perfection, and the one thankful and needy for eternal mercy, will go to an everlasting realm in order to remain there permanently, that he will go to eternity in order to accompany those eternal qualities and will accompany that eternal Beauty, everlasting Perfection, and ever-enduring Mercy for all eternity.


For an eternal beauty cannot be content with an impermanent admirer, a mortal lover. Since beauty loves itself, it desires love in return for its love. Transience and impermanence transform such love into enmity. If man was not going to go to eternity and remain there permanently, in place of his innate love of eternal beauty there would be enmity.


As is described in a footnote in the Tenth Word, one time a celebrated beauty expelled a lover from her presence, whereupon his love turned, into enmity and in order to console himself he said. U h How ugly she is!, thus insulting and denying her beauty.


Indeed, man is hostile to what is unfamiliar to him in the same way that he quite simply wishes to be hostile to and discover the faults of things he cannot obtain or possess. Since, as the whole universe testifies, the True Beloved and Absolutely Beautiful One causes man to love Him- self through His Most Beautiful Names, which are altogether exquisite, and desires man to love Him, then most certainly He would not endow man who is both His beloved and His lover with an innate enmity and cause him to be vexed with Himself from afar; He would not endow man's spirit with a hidden enmity which would be altogether contrary to man's nature, who is by his nature the most lovable and loving creature and the most exceptional that He has created for worship. For man would only be able to cure the deep wounds caused by eternal separation from an Absolute Beauty that he loves and whose value he appreciates through enmity towards it, being vexed with, and denying it.


It is from this point that the enmity towards God Almighty of the unbelievers arises. In which case, the Pre-Eternal Beauty will surely make manifest in man a perpetual life in a permanent realm in order to be present together with him who is an enraptured mirror to Himself on the journey to post-eternity.


Since man has been created in such a way that by his very nature he longs for and loves an Ever-Enduring Beauty; and since an Ever-Enduring Beauty cannot be content with an impermanent lover; and since, in order to find consolation from the pain and sorrow arising from some aim that he does not know or cannot attain or possess, man pacifies himself through discovering the faults of such an aim, rather, through nurturing a hidden enmity towards it; and since the universe was created for man, and man was created to know and love God; and since the Creator of the universe, together with His Names, is eternal; and since the manifestation of His Names will be perpetual, everlasting, and post-eternal; then man will most certainly go to an everlasting realm and will manifest an everlasting life. .


Furthermore the Arabian Prophet, Muhammed (Upon whom be blessings and peace), who is the supreme guide and perfect man, made known and demonstrated in the most perfect form in himself and in his religion the value and all the perfections and duties we have explained above concerning man. This demonstrates that the universe was created for mankind and its aim and object is mankind. So too the aim and object of mankind, and its choicest and most valuable member, and its most brilliant mirror to the Single and Eternally Besought One is Ahmed Muhammed (Upon whom be blessings and peace).




Upon whom and upon whose Family be blessings and peace to the number of good deeds of his Community. O God! O Most Merciful One! O Most Compassionate One! O Single One! O Ever-Living One! O Self Subsistent One! O Sapient One! O All-Just One! O Most Holy One! We beseech You through the truth of Your All-Wise Criterion of Truth and Falsehood, the Qur'an, and through veneration for Your Most Noble Beloved, and through the truth of Your Most Beautiful Names, and through veneration for Your Greatest Name, to preserve us from the evil of the instinctual soul and of Satan and from the evil of jinn and of men. Amen.




Glory be unto You! We have no knowledge save that which You have taught us; indeed You are All-Knowing, All-Wise!




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